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初中英语疑难例析300例

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资源共享 2011-10-29 14:31 复制链接 39 7019

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前言

主题主要分析英语语言知识方面的错误,严格说来主要是分析各级各类考试中备受命题者青睐的考试热点,同时也是考生易落入陷阱的易错点。在选择这些考生想当然错误时我们相当谨慎,每选一个易错点我们都反复询问自己以下几个问题:

1.是不是最典型的?


2.是不是命题者最常考的?


3.是不是考生最易错的?


对选出的每个语言点,我们根据各个出错点的特点,有的进行思路剖析,侧重方法点拨;有的进行知识归纳,侧重举一反三;有的讲练结合,侧重思维诱导;有的正误比较,侧重纠错能力;有的英汉对照,侧重语言差异等。总之,我们的目的是:每页一题,每题一议,每议一得。


本主题所分析的语言知识错误,大部分是作者在长期的教学实践中积累的,有一部分则是从各级各类考试的试题中精选的,其内容十分丰富,覆盖面相当广,基本上包括了各级各类考试可能涉及的语言知识考点,其中包括有名词、数词、人称代词和物主代词、不定代词、冠词、形容词与副词、介词、it 的用法、动词时态、动词语态、非谓语动词、情态动词、虚拟语气、连系动词、主谓一致、强调结构、反意问句、感叹句、状语从句、名词性从句、定语从句、倒装等等。






初中英语疑难例析300例 (1---18)



1.能说What a great progress!吗

例    —______great progress he has made!

A.How B.How a C.What D.What a

此题应选C 。容易误选D,误认为progress 是可数名词。此题命题者主要考察了两个方面的问题:一是感叹句句型;二是名词progress 的可数性。

感叹句的基本结构是:

1)How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!

2)What+(a/an)+形容词+名词+主语+谓语!(主语为不可数名词或复数形式,其前不用a/an)英语中除了像air,water,milk,iron 等这些中国人一目了然的不可数名词外,还有一些不可数名词很容易弄错。其中典型的有:work(工作),news(消息),luck(运气),fun(有趣的事),home-work(家庭作业),advice(劝告、建议),harm(损害、伤害),progress(进步),information(信息、消息),weather(天气),wealth(财富),furniture(家俱),luggage/baggage(行李),等。注意以下正误句型:

误:I wish you a good luck.

正:I wish you good luck.祝你好运。

误:It's a great fun for us to be with her.

正:It's great fun for us to be with her.我们同她在一起很有趣。

误:He gave us some advices.

正:He gave us some advice.他给我们提了些建议。

2.名词work 的三种用法

—Where does Mr Smith work?

—He works in a glass_____around here.

A.work B.works C.working D.workes

此题应选B 。容易误选C,误认为:因为其前用了不定冠词a,所以不能选work(因为不可数)和works(因为是复数),D 显然是错的。这里work 有三个意思很容易弄混:

1.表示“工作”是不可数名词:

He has too much work to do.他要做的工作太多。

2.表示“著作”或“作品”是可数名词,但多用复数:

The man gained his wealth by printing words off amouswriters.

他通过印刷著名作家的作品而赢得他的财富。

3.表示“工厂”只用复数形式,但可表示单数意义:

The glass works is[ are] near the station.

玻璃工厂在车站附近。

类似地注意以下各名词因变为复数形式,而导致含义有变化:

green 绿色 greens 青菜,蔬菜wood 木头,木材 woods 小树林manner 方式,方法 manners 礼貌arm 臂 arms 武器water 水 waters 河川,海,温泉spirit 精神 spirits 心境quarter 四分之一 quarters 军营custom 习惯 customs 关税force 力气 forces 军队.



3.可以说Two teas,please 吗

例 —Can I help you?

—____,please.

A.Two teas B.Two cups of teas

C.Two cup teas D.Two cup of tea

此题应选A 。其余几项都容易被误选。要做好此题,先要弄清tea的两种用法:

1.表示“茶”,是物质名词,不可数:

I don't like to drink tea.我不喜欢喝茶。

Would you like a cup of tea?要喝杯茶吗?

2.在口语中可以表示“一杯茶”,是可数名词;

—What can I do for you?你要吃点什么?

—Two teas,please.请来两杯茶。

但是值得注意的是,虽然以上两种用法都可以,但千万不要将这两种用法混杂在一起。如可以说two teas,也可以说two cupsof tea,但是不能说two cups of teas 。

具有类似用法的词还有coffee(咖啡):

1.表示“咖啡”,是物质名词,不可数:

I prefer tea to coffee.我喜欢喝茶不喜欢喝咖啡。

He served us with two cups of coffee.他用两杯咖啡招待我们。

2.在口语中可以表示“一杯咖啡”,是可数名词:

—Can I help you?你要点什么?

—Two coffees,please.请来两杯咖啡。

同时也要注意不要将以上两种用法混在一起。如可以说two coffees,也可以说two cups of coffee,但是绝对不能说two cups ofcoffees 。

4.hair 用不用-s 差别很大

例  a.He must be very old.Look,he has grey _____.

   b.He found some___in his soup.

A.hair,hair B.hairs,hairs.

C.hair,hairs D.hairs,hair.

此题应选C 。容易误选A,误认为hair 永远不可数。其实hair 这个词既可以是可数的,也可以是不可数,只是含义稍有变化:

1.作为可数名词,是指一根一根的“头发”或“毛发”:

Look at this,a hair in my soup.你瞧,我的汤里有根头发。

The cat has left her loose hairs all over my clothes.猫掉的毛弄得我衣服上到处都是。

My father has quite a few gray hairs.我父亲已有不少白发。

There is not a gray hair on his head.他头上没有一根白头发。

2.作为不可数名词是“头发”的总称,是集合名词:

I'll have my hair cut.我要去理发。

He has blond hair.他有一头金发。

She has a beautiful head of hair.她有一头漂亮的头发。

The woman likes to do her hair in foreign style.这个女人喜欢把头发梳成外国式。

试比较以下句子:

He has grey hair.他满头白发。

He has grey hairs.他有些白发了。

5.你会用dozen,score,hundred,thousand,mil lion 吗

例  I want three_____these eggs.

A.dozen B.dozens

C.dozen of D.dozens of

此题涉及两个方面的问题:一是dozen 是否加词尾-s,二是其后是否接介词of 。由于在这个问题上dozen 与score,hundred,thousand,million 极为相似,所以这里将它们放在一起叙述:

1)当这些词与具体数字连用时,不用复数形式,也不后接介词of(尽管有人认为score/dozen 之后有时可接of,但惯用法认为,省略of常见):three hundred students 300 名学生/three score(of)eggs 60 只鸡蛋

2)当这些词不与具体数字连用,而是表示不确定的泛指数,则不仅要用复数形式,而且要后接介词of,然后才能后接名词:thousands of students 数千名学生/dozens of times 几十次/mil-lions of years ago 数百万年前

3)当这些词与a few,several,many 等数目不很具体的词连用时,用不用复数形式均可,但是注意:不用复数形式,其后的介词of 可以省略;用复数形式,其后介词of 不能省略:several dozen(of)pencils /several dozens of pencils 几打铅笔4)当这些词后面的名词有了the,these,those 等特指限定词修饰时,或其后接的是us,them 这样的人称代词时,则此时必须用介词of:two hundred of the workers 这些工人中的200 人 /threedozen of these eggs 这些鸡蛋中的3 打/four dozen of them 它们中的4 打通过以上分析:此题答案显然只能是C 。



6.容易弄错的集合名词

例  It is reported that a great number of ______died in the drought.

A.cattles B.polices C.peoples D.poultry

此题应选D 。其余几项均可能被误选。此题主要涉及集合名词的用法,下面将集合名词的有关用法作一归纳:

Ⅰ类:这一类包括cattle(牛),people(人),police(警察),poul-try(家禽)等,其用法特点为:只有单数形式,但却表示复数意义,用作主语时谓语通常也用复数;不与a(n)连用,但可与the 连用(表示总括意义和特指):

The police are looking for him.警察在找他。

People will laugh at you.人们会笑你的。

Ⅱ类:这一类包括family(家庭),team(队),class(班),audience(听众)等,其用法特点为:若视为整体,表示单数意义;若考虑其个体成员,表示复数意义。比较:

This class consists of 45 pupils.这个班由45 个学生组成。

This class are studying English now.这个班的学生在学习英语。

Ⅲ类:这一类包括baggage/luggage(行李),clothing(衣服),furniture(家俱),machinery(机器)等,其用法特点为:是不可数名词,要用单数形式,不用不定冠词(当然更不能用数词),没有复数形式:

Our clothing protects us from[ against] the cold.我们的衣服可以御寒。

Have you checked all your baggage?你所有行李都托运了吗?

  

7.means 用法易错点

例Every possible means_____been tried,and we find only______this means can we do it well.

A.have,in B.have,by

C.has,in D.has,by

此题应选D 。其余几项均容易被误选。这里主要涉及名词means(方式,方法,手段)的用法与搭配:

1.单复数同形(永远有词尾-s)。若用作主语,其谓语的数需根据句意来确定。比较:

All possible means have been tried.所有可能的办法都已经试过了。

Every possible means has been tried.每种可能的办法都已经试过了。 若句意不能明确地表明主语的单复数,其谓语则用单数或复数均可:

Is [ Are] there any other means of doing it?做这事还有其它的什么办法吗?

2.表示以某种方式、方法或手段,用介词by:

Only by this means can you do it well.只有通过这种办法你才能做好此事。

有时用by means of,意为:用,依靠:

Thoughts are expressed by means of words.思想靠语言来表达。

3.表示做某事的方法或手段,多接“of+(动)名词”:

But they had no means of cooking them.但是他们没有办法来把它们煮熟。

Taking a plane is the quickest means of getting there.去那儿最快的办法是坐飞机。



8.能说I'm good friends with him 吗

例  —Jim,are you _______of his?

—Yes,I'm______with him.

A.a good friend,a good friend

B.good friends,good friends

C.a good friend,good friends

D.good friends,a good friend

此题应选C 。容易误选A 。

第一句应填a good friend,这对于一般考生来说可能不成问题,因为大家比较熟悉这样的句型:

I'm a good friend of hers.我是她的一位好朋友。

He's a good friend of mine.他是我的一位好朋友。

第二句应填good friends,这则是许多考生不理解的地方,因为此句主语明显是单数,而后面的表语又怎么能用复数呢?按照英美人的看法:两个人交朋友,关系是彼此的,即你是我的朋友,那我就是你的朋友,所以他们在这类表达中用复数名词。又如:

He has made friends with her.他已与她交上朋友。

Do you want to make friends with him?你想跟他交朋友吗?

类似地,以下各表达中,也要用复数:

He stood up and shook hands with us.他站起来与我们握手。

You have to change trains at Wuhan.你必须在武汉转车。

The teacher didn't let the two boys change seats.老师没有让这两个小男孩换座位。

9.选这个不定代词全靠语境

例   A:Is______here?

B:No,Bob and Jim have asked for leave.

A.anybody B.everybody

C.somebody D.nobody

此题应选B 。容易误选A,认为这是疑问句,所以要选A 。还有的考生可能会认为选C,因为某些特殊情况下(比如表示邀请或请求等),some(thing)也可用于疑问句中。此题的正确答案是B,此题主要考察的不是不定代词的句型用法,而是考察在一定的上下文(语境)如何选用适当的不定代词。

该题若不看下句,选A/C 也是可能的,比如一个人晚上走进一个空房子,就可能这样问,其意大致为:这里有人吗?(用some-body 比anybody 肯定意味更强),然而联系下句就很错了:首先,No 用得很荒唐(既然回答No,说明这里没有人,那么答话的人又是什么呢?),其次从后面的Bob and Jim have asked for leave.(鲍勃和吉姆请假了)来看,这里显然是一个“查问人数”的情景。这样,再回头来看看选项B就顺理成章了(Is everybody here?大家到齐了吗?)以下是测试不定代词在一定上下文的运用,请你试着选一选(注意语境!):

例  The office is empty because _____has gone home.

A.everyone  B.someone  C.no one  D.all

答案:A

  

10.(a)little/(a)few 用法要点

例  If we had followed his plan,we could have done the job betterwith______money and_____people.

A.less,less B.fewer,fewer

C.less,fewer D.fewer,less

此题的正确答案是C 。此题主要考察不定代词little 和few 的比较等级及有关用法:little —less —least(修饰不可数名词);few — fewer —fewest(修饰可数名词)。

下面小结(a)few 与(a)little.的用法及区别:

1)(a)few 之后必须接复数可数名词。few 表示数量很少或几乎没有,强调“少”,含有否定意义;a few 表示数量虽然少,但有几个,强调“有”,含有肯定意义。试体会:

His theory is very difficult,and few people understand it.他的理论很深奥,没有几个人能懂。

His theory is very difficult,but a few people understand it.他的理论很深奥,但是有些人懂。

2)(a)little 之后接不可数名词,little 与a little 区别跟few和a few 之间的区别相同。如:Fortunately,I had a little money on me.幸而我身上带着一点钱。

Unfortunately,I had little money on me.很不巧,我身上没带什么钱。

3)一般说来,在only,still,quite,not 等词之后通常用a few或a little,而在very,some,the,no,so 等词之后通常用few 或little:I have only a little money.我只有一点点钱。Very few people like him.喜欢他的人很少。



11.another 之后可以接复数名词吗

例   A:Have you finished your report yet?

B:No,I'll finish in _______ten minutes.

A.another B.other C.others D.the other

此题应选A 。容易误选B,D 。许多考生认为此题首先要排除选项A,因为:another 只接单数名词,而这里ten minutes 显然是复数,所以不能选它。事实上,此题答案正是A 。确实,在通常情况下,another 之后只能接单数名词:

正:another student 另外一个学生

误:another students(另外一些学生)

正:other students 另外一些学生(其他学生)

但是值得注意的是:若another 后的名词有数词或few 修饰时,也可接复数名词:

正:another few days 另外几天

正:another five chairs 另外五把椅子

正:another ten years 另外10 年

正:another two dictionaries 另外两本词典

类似地,every 也有以上用法特点:通常后接单数名词:

正:every boy 每个男孩

误:every boys

但是若every 后的名词有数词修饰,则也可接复数名词:

正:every ten years 每10 年

正:every five metres 每5 米正:every three lines 每三行

12.你会使用和区别another,other,theother, others,the others 等不定代词吗

例   a.Where are_____students?

b.Perhaps______may not think that way.

A.other,another B.others,others

C.the other,other D.the other,others

此题应选D 。在各类考试中,考察不定代词时,命题者经常将another,other,the other,others,the others 等混在一起进行综合考察,这些不定代词总的特点是:它们不仅在含义上有单复数之分,而且在用法上有泛指(无the)和特指(有the)之别。其具体用法可归纳如下:

1.指单数时,若是泛指用another(若直接接名词一定是单数),若是特指用the other(若后接名词一定是单数):

He finished his cake and asked for another(one).他吃完了那块蛋糕后又要了一块。(泛指)

shut the other eye,too.另一只眼也闭上。(特指)

2.指复数时,若泛指用other(若后接名词一定是复数),若特指用the other(若后接名词一定是复数):

Other people may object to your idea.别人可能会反对你的意见。She is cleverer than the other students in her class.她比班上的其他学生要聪明些。(特指)others(表泛指)永远表示复数意义(且其后不能再接名词),其用法大致相当于“other+复数名词”。同样地the others(表特指)也永远表示复数意义(其后也不能接名词),大致相当于“the other+复数名词”。



13.some 何时用于疑问句和否定句

例   —I feel a bit hungry.

—Why don't you have _______bread?

A.any  B.some  C.little  D.a

此题应选B 。容易误选A(因为这是疑问句)。其实在表示邀请的疑问句中,正是要用some 而不用any 。关于some/any 的用法,一般说来,some 用于肯定句中,any 用于否定句和疑问句中。但这只是通常的情况,以下特殊情况须注意:

1)希望得到肯定回答的疑问句通常用some:

May I have some paper?我可以拿些纸吗?

Aren't there some stamps in that drawer?

那抽屉里不是有几张邮票吗?

Didn't he give you some money?他不是给了你一些钱吗?

2)表示请求或建议的疑问句通常用some:

Why not give her some flowers?为什么不送她些花呢?

Would you like some bananas?吃点香蕉吗?

Won't you have some more?你不再要一点吗?

Shall I get some chalk for you?要我给你拿些粉笔来吗?

3)some 有时用于下面这样的否定句:

I don't like some of the films.这些电影中有几部我不喜欢。

比较:I do not like any of the films.这些电影中我一部也不喜欢。

14.有关不定代词的肯定与否定,两者与三者等

例   A:Shall I sit at this end of boat or the other end?

B:If you keep still,you can sit at _____end.

A.neither  B.each  C.either  D.any

此题应选C 。容易误选D,本句句意为“只要你不动,坐任何一头都行”,这很容易按汉语意思联系到any end 。从意思上看,选项A 表示否定,意思不通;选项B 不可能(因为一个人不能同时坐在船的两头);而选项D 也是错的(因为any 指的三者,而本题所涉及的“船”只有两个end),选项C 正合适(因为它表示:两者当中的任何一个)。

下面我们将以上知识点作一归纳:

1.做此类题首先要从句意上判断是用表肯定的不定代词还是用表否定的不定代词,并据此排除其中一些错误选项。

2.表示两者和三者的不定代词:

1)指两者:both/either/neither/each

2)指三者(以上):all/any/none/no one/every/each

3.用法说明:

1)不定代词一般可作主语,宾语,定语;all,both,each 还可作同位语。但是注意:every 只能放在名词前作定语,不能单独使用,通常也不接of 短语。

2)否定词(如:not,hardly 等)只能出现在any,either 之前,而不能出现在其后。3)all,both,every 等与not 连用表示部分否定(each 不这样用);若表示完全否定,则需换用none(其后可接of 短语),neither(其后可接of 短语),no one(其后一般不接of 短语)。



15.回答what,who,how many 等要用什么不定代词

例   — How many students took part in it?

—______.

A.Nobody B.No one C.None D.No one

此题应选C 。容易误选A,B 。

在通常情况下,回答以what,who,how many 等开头的疑问句,有一定的讲究:

1.以What 开头的疑问句,否定回答通常用Nothing:

—What did he say at the meeting?他在会上讲了些什么?

—Nothing.什么也没有讲。

—What's in the box?这盒子有什么?

—Nothing.什么也没有。

2.以Who 开头的疑问句,否定回答通常用Nobody,No one:

—Who was late today?今天谁迟到了?

—No one.没有人迟到。

—Who has read the book?谁读过这本书?

—Nobody.没有人。

3.以How many,How much 开头的疑问句,否定回答通常用None:

—How many dictionaries did you buy yesterday?

昨天你买了几本字典?

—None.一本也没买。

—How much money did he lend you?

他借给你多少钱?

—None.一分也没有。

16.有无冠词,意思有别

例   Can you finish the book in a month or two?

a.Yes,it's out of________quetion.

b.No,it's out of_____question.

A.the,the     B.×,×

C.the,×      D.×,the

此题应选D 。比较:

1)out of question 没问题(=without question)

2)out of the question 根本不可能(=impossible)仅差一个冠词,意思几乎相反。比较以下类似句:

1)a.Three months after her marriage,she was with child.婚后三个月她就怀孕了。

b.She came to see me with a child.

她带着一个小孩来看我。

2)a.Great changes have taken place here since 1978.

1978年以来,这里发生了巨大的变化。

b.Now plastics have taken the place of many materials.现在塑料已代替了许多材料。

3)a.Mr Smith is in charge of our class.

史密斯先生管理我们班。

b.Our class is in the charge of Mr Smith.

我们班由史密斯先生管理。

4)a.The old woman is in possession of a large fortune.

这个老太婆拥有大宗财产。

b.Large fortune is in the possession of the old woman.大宗财产掌握在这个老太婆手里。

  

17.用冠词,表示具体实体:不用冠词,表示相关活动

例   a.I saw ten people seated around _____table.

b.It's bad manners to blow your nose at _____table.

A.a,a   B.×,×   C.a,×   D.the,a

此题选C 。第一空填不定冠词(当然若是特指也可用定冠词),这是把table 当作一个具体的“实体”来看待;第二空不用冠词,因为这里的table 已不是一个具体的“实体”,而是指与桌子有关的一项“活动”——吃饭。英语中有很多这样的情况:当一个名词表示一个具体的“实体”(如具体的场所、具体的建筑物等)时,它可以与冠词连用;但当它不是表示一个具体的实体而是表示与之相关的一项活动时,则通常不用冠同。

现举例如下:

1)go to school 去上学(读书)

go to a [ the] school 到学校去(不是读书)

2)go to bed 上床睡觉

go to a[ the] bed 到床边去(不是睡觉)

3)in prison 坐牢

in a [ the] prison 在监狱里(不是坐牢)

4)go to sea 当海员,做水手,出海

go to the sea 到海边去(不是当水手等)以上情况还可以有其它结构:at school 在校读书/at church 在做礼拜/be in bed 在睡觉/be sent to prison 被关进牢房等等。但是以下用法属例外(其中的冠词不能少):go to the cinema 去看电影/go to the office 去办公室上班等。



18.乐器名词前一定要加定冠词吗

例   He loves playing _______piano,but he hasn't got ______piano of his own.

A.the,the B.the,a C.a,the D.a,a

此题应选B 。容易误选A 。有不少考生认为乐器名词前一定要用定冠词。如:

She plays the piano very well.她钢琴弹得好。

She studies the piano under Mr Smith.她在史密斯先生的指导下学习钢琴。

He practised(on)the piano every day.他每天练习钢琴。

以上各句均正确,并且其前的定冠词通常不能省略(因为其中的piano 指的不是钢琴这个实体,而是指钢琴演奏、钢琴理论、钢琴技巧等抽象意义)。但是以下各例则没有用定冠词(因为其中的piano 指的是钢琴这个实体):

He has two pianos.他有两部钢琴。

He bought a piano for her.他给她买了部钢琴。

注意,球类运动名词也有类似特点:

1.表示球类活动时,不用冠词(也不用复数):

He plays basketball every day.他每天打篮球。

He is good at volleyball.他排球打得好。

2.表示球类实体时,可用冠词(也可用复数):

Did you see a football in the classroom this morning?

今天早上你在教室里看见足球了吗?

There are some basketballs in the comer.角落里有几个篮球。

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  • bebqu

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  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:15 | 显示全部楼层 沙发

    初中英语疑难例析300例 (19---33)

    19.物质名词和抽象名词前何时用或不用冠词   

    例  The teacher said______snow is white,but_____snow on the road is red.Why?

    A.the,the       B.×,×

    C.the,×         D.×,the

    此题应选D,容易误选B,误认为:snow 是物质名词,其前永远不用冠词。 在通常情况下,物质名词和抽象名词在表示一般概念(即泛指)时,不用冠词(即使有描绘性定语修饰也不用冠词)。但是如果物质名词和抽象名词不是表示一般概念,而是表示某一特定内容(尤其是有限定性定语修饰)时,或当它们表示“一种”、“一场”、“一份”等意思时,则可以加冠词。试做以下试题:

    1)I like to eat_______fish,but____fish I ate last night  ma be me sick.

    A.the,the      B.×,×   C.the,×   D.×,the

    2)______air is necessary to life,but______air around here  is not fresh.

    A.the,the   B.×,×    C.the,×    D.×,the

    3)A:Do you like to listen to_____music?

    B:It all depends.In fact only like_____music by Mozart.

    A.the,the   B.×,×  C.the,×   D.×,the

    4)A:He has no sense of _______humour.

    B:No,you didn't catch _____humour in his remark.

    A.the,the    B.×,×

    C.the,×     D.×,the

    答案:1.D 2.D 3.D 4.D

    20.你知道“the+形容词”的用法吗

    例  a.The wounded____ to the hospital.

    b.The beautiful ____ for ever.

    A.was,lives   B.were,live

    C.was,live    D.were ,lives

    此题应选 D,主要考察“the+形容词”结构。用法注意:

    1.表示性质或特征相同的人,具有复数意义:

    The rich are not always happier than the poor.富人并不一定总比穷人幸福。类例:

    the deaf 聋人 the dead 死者 the blind 盲人the young 年轻人 the weak 弱者 the old 老人 the strong 强者 the sick 病人 the wounded 伤员

    the killed 被杀者 the injured 受伤者 the living 活着的人 the unemployed 失业者 the oppressed 被压迫者

    the oppressing压迫者

    2.指抽象概念,表示单数意义:

    The true always triumphs.真理永远获胜。类例:

    the good 善良 the right 正义 the true 真实

    the bad 坏事 the humorous 幽默感有时可能根据其含义的不同,用法也会有所变化。如the good 既可表示抽象意义(=what is good),具有单数意义,也可表示人的类别(=those who are good),具有复数意义。又如以下两例中的the old:

    The old are respected in our country.

    在我国老年人受到尊重。

    The new is sure to replace the old.

    新的东西肯定会代替旧的东西。

    21.人名前可用冠词吗

    例   ____are coming to see us tonight.

    A.The Smith    B.The Smiths

    C.Mr Smiths    D.Mr Smith

    此题应选B 。容易误选C,D,因为在通常情况下,人名前不用冠词。此题要选B,理由是:姓氏的复数形式前加定冠词,可以表示某一家人或某某夫妇。又如:

    The Lius live upstairs.刘家住在楼上。

    The Blacks managed to buy a computer for their son.

    布莱克夫妇设法为他们的孩子买了台电脑。

    以下各例的人名前也用了冠词,请注意它在汉语中的意思:

    A Mr Brown wants to see you.一位叫布朗先生的人要见你。

    They thought he was a Zhuge Liang.他们认为他是个诸葛亮。

    He is a Newton of today.他是当代的牛顿。

    The painting on the wall is a Rembrandt.

    墙上的这幅是伦勃朗的作品。

    Lu Xun was called the Gorkey of China.

    鲁迅被认为是中国的高尔基。

    He was the Homer of his age.他是他那个时代的荷马。

    He's sitting in the Ford.他坐在福特牌汽车里。

    A few minutes later he was met by an anxious Miss Smith.

    几分钟后焦急的史密斯小姐向他迎了上来。

    22.比较级前可用冠词吗

    例     Which is____country,Canada or Australia?

    A.a large   B.larger   C.a larger    D.the larger

    此题应选D 。容易误选B,有的考生认为只有形容词最高级前才加the,而比较级前不用the 。但是此题正是要选比较级前带有the 的答案

    D 。理由是:the larger 中的the 不是修饰比较级larger,而是修饰其后的名词country(表特指)。试比较:

    Which is larger,Canada or Australia?

    下面小结比较级前带有冠词的用法:

    1.当比较级与of the two 连用(或上下文暗示是特指两者中之一)时,比较级前通常用the:

    He is the cleverer of the two boys.他是这两个男孩中较聪明的一个。

    2.某些词语(如by far)放在比较级之前作修饰语时,通常要用the :

    This is by far the better.这要好得多。

    3.当比较级之后接有名词时,通常也要有冠词(该冠词修饰其后的名词),同时要根据上下文确定是特指(用the)还是泛指(用a/an):Do you have a bigger size?This one is a bit tight for me.你有大一点型号的吗?这个对我来说稍紧了一点。下列情况比较级前也用the(此时the 是副词):

    1.用于“the+比较级”(句子常有表示原因、理由或条件的状语):I feel the better for my walk.散了一下步我觉得舒服多了。/I hove him all the more for [ because of] his faults.正因为他有缺点,所以我越发喜欢他。2.用于“the+比较级,the+比较级”,表示“越…越”时:

    The sooner,the better.越快越好。

    The more a man has,the more he wants.人越有越想要。

    23.说明整个类属,要用定冠词

    例     Alexander Graham Bell invented____telephone in 1876.

    A.×    B.a    C.the    D.one

    此题应选C 。容易误选B,认为这是不定冠词表“类属”。确实不定冠词可用来表示“类属”(这是它最基本的用法),此时它表示的是某一类属中的每一个人或每一个东西都能说明该类属的整体情况(有类似汉语的“举一反三”或“以此类推”的含义),此时也可用定冠词或名词复数形式来表示:马是有用的动物。

    正:A horse is a useful animal .

    正:The horse is a useful animal .

    正:Horses are useful animals.

    但是,若不是说明每一个人和东西的情况,而是说整个类属,则不用不定冠词,要用定冠词(此时多与“发明”、“绝种”这样的意义相联系):

    电话是1876 年发明的。

    正:The telephone was invented in 1876.

    误:A telephone was invented in 1876.

    老虎有绝种的危险。

    正:The tiger is in danger of becoming extinct.

    误:A tiger is in danger of becoming extinct.

    但是以下说法是可以的,因为它涉及的不是整个类属:

    正:He invented a new machine last year.

    他去年发明了一种新机器。

    正:He killed a tiger all by himself.他独自一人杀死了一只老虎。

    24.要注意比较对象的一致性

    例    His camera is more expensive than____.

    A.hers   B.her   C.it   D.its

    此题应选A,容易误选B,这里涉及的主要是比较对象的一致性问题。正如我们不能将“一公斤肉”与“一尺布”进行比较一样,我们不能将“他的照相机”与“她(它)”比较。比较以下正误句型:

    中国人口比日本(的人口)多得多。

    误:The population of China is much larger than Japan.

    (“中国的人口”不能与“日本”比较)

    正: The population of China is much latger than that ofJapan.(句中that=the population)

    解放前我们的生活比牛马还不如。

    误: Before liberation our life was worse than draught animals.(“我们的生活”不能与“牛马”比较)

    正:Before liberation our life was worse than that of draught animals.(that=the life)

    美国大部分的公路都比欧洲的宽。

    误:Most of the highways in America are wider than Europe.(“美国公路”不能与“欧洲”比较)

    正:Most of the highways in America are wider than those in Europe.(those=the highways)



    25.than any other 还是 than any ?

    例   Canada is larger than____ country in Asia.

    A.any   B.any other   C.other    D.another

    此题应选A。很容易误选 B,因为 than any other 这一表达在许多考生脑海里已成了一种“定势”,可以脱口而出。而出题者也正是利用考生这一“定势”设置陷阱。此题要选A,这里涉及的不仅仅是一个语法问题,而且还包括一个逻辑和常识问题。试比较(a 句错,b 句对):

    1)a.China is larger than any country in Asia.中国比亚洲任何国家都要大。(因为China 在亚洲范围之内,所以由此句推出:中国比中国也要大,显然荒唐)

    b.China is larger than any other country in Asia.中国比亚洲任何其它国家都要大。

    2)a.Canada is Iarger than any other country in Asia.加拿大比亚洲任何其它国家都要大。(由于Canada 不在亚洲范围之内,所以无需用other)

    b.Canada is larger than any country in Asia.加拿大比亚洲任何国家都要大。

    以上分析告诉我们:在这类比较级句型中,other 的主要作用是排除“自己跟自己比较”的可能。具体地讲:如果所谈及的人或事物在比较范围之内则用other,不在比较范围之内则不用other。顺便说一句,除了用other 来排除“自己与自己比较”之外,我们还可用else:This book is more interesting than any book else.[=than any other book]这本书比其它任何一本书都更有趣。



    26.你会正确使用比较等级的修饰语吗

    例   A:He is____ cleverer than his brother.

       B:Yes,but he is____ the lazier.

    A.more,much     B.quite,by far

    C.far,by far        D.very,a lot

    此题应选C。其余几项均有可能被误选。此题主要考察比较等级的修饰语。不能选A,B,D 的原因是more,quite,very 等均不能修饰比较级。

    far/by far 都可以修饰比较级和最高级,注意以下几点:

    1.far 可以修饰比较级和最高级,且通常前置。

    2.by far 也可以修饰比较级和最高级,且可以前置也可以后置。但是,若置于比较级前,通常应在比较级前加上the。

    正:This is far better.这要好得多。

    正:This is far the best.这是最最好的。

    正:This is better by far.这要好得多。

    正:This is by far the better.这要好得多。

    正:This is by far the best.这是最最好的。

    正:This is the best by far.这是最最好的。

    形容词和副词原级、比较级和最高级的常见修饰语:

    1.修饰原级:very,quite,rather,too,pretty,how,so 等.

    2.修饰比较级:even,much,still,rather,(by) far,not any,a lot,a little,a bit,twice,three times 等.

    注意:quite 一般不用来修饰比较级,但有一个特例,即quite better(指身体情况)。

    3.修饰最高级:(by)far,much,nearly,almost ,quite,by nomeans 以及the very,the second,the next 等.

    27.你会使用as...as 结构的修饰语吗

    例  After the new technique was introduced , the factory produced____ tractors in 1988 as the year before.

    A.as twice many     B.as many twice

    C.twice as many     D.twice many as

    此题应选C。主要考察在比较句型中as…as 这一结构修饰语的位置。关于这一问题以下几个方面是命题者经常涉及的考点:

    1)as…as 结构有哪些修饰语。主要的有:just,quite,nearly,almost,exactly,half,twice,three times 等:

    He is just as tall as his father.他刚好与他父亲一样高。

    It's not nearly so difficult as you think.

    这远不像你想像的那样难。

    2)修饰as…as 结构的词语的位置:只能放在 as…as 结构之前,绝不能插入其中:

    This rope is exactly as long as that one.

    这根绳子与那根绳子恰好一样长。

    He hasn't been quite so unlucky as he pretends.

    他不像他装的那样不幸。

    3)as…as 结构的其它注意点:该结构一定要用形容词或副词的原级,不能用比较级或最高级。在肯定句中要用as…as,但是在否定句中用as? as/so…as 均可:The horse is getting old and can't run as [so] fast as it did.这匹马老了,不如以前跑得快了。

    28.你能正确理解no+比较级+than 结构吗

    例    A:Is he very rich?

    B:No,not at all.He's____richer than a beggar.

    A.not  B.no  C.much  D.more

    此题应选B。容易误选A,误认为这是一般的肯定句变为否定句,用not 不用no。其实此题要选B,句意为“他跟乞丐一样穷”。其中的no+比较级+ than 意为“与?一样不”,否定两者,大致相当于该比较级形容词或副词的反义词。如:

    1)a.This box is not bigger than that one.

    这个盒子不如那个盒子大。

    b.This box is no bigger than that one.

    这个盒子与那个盒子一样不大。

    (=This box is as small as that one.)

    2)a.He didn't arrive earlier than Mary.他没有玛丽来得早。

    b.He arrived no earlier than Mary.他与玛丽一样来得不早。(=He arrived as late as Mary.)类例:no taller than=as short as 一样矮no more clever than=as foolish as 一样蠢注意以下句型也属类似情况:no more than 表示对两者都否定,意为“同?一样不”(=neither ?nor):He's no more a writer than a painter.他不是画家,也不是作家(正如他不是画家一样,他也不是作家)。(=He is nei-ther a painter nor a writer.)A whale is no more a fish than a horse.马不是鱼,鲸也不是鱼(正如马不是鱼一样,鲸也不是鱼)。(Neither a horse nor a whale is a fish.)



    29.你会正确区分older/elder,farther/further 吗

    例  —Who is____,Jim or Jack?

    —Jim and his father wants to send him to the US for____ education.

    A.older,farther    B.older,further

    C.elder,farther     D.elder,further

    此题应选B,主要考察older/elder 和farther/further 的区别:

    1.关于older/elder:

    1)用于家人之间表示长幼关系,通常用elder(在美国英语中也用older):one's elder[older] brother 哥哥/the elder [older]daughter大女儿

    2)elder 只指人不指物,只用作定语,不用作表语,且不用于比较句型,但older 无此限制:

    误:He is elder than me.

    正:He is older than me.他年纪比我大。

    误:Which building is elder,this one or that one?

    正:Which building is older,this one or that one?这座建筑和那座建筑哪座古老些?

    2.关于farther/further:

    1)在英国英语中,两者均可用来指距离(但美国英语倾向于用farther):

    Can you go any farther [further]?你还走得动吗?

    2)若用于引申义,表示“更进一步”、“更多”等义,则只能用further:

    We'll further discuss it.我们会进一步讨论它。3.eldest/oldest,farthest/furthest 的区别同上。

    30.表示“在...之后”,in 与after 的区别只在于时态吗

    例  a.He will come back____ two days.

    b.He will come back____ two o'clock.

    A.in,in       B.after,after

    C.after,in     D.in,after

    此题应选D。容易误选A,B,错误思维可能有:

    1.有的考生认为,“在?之后”要用after,所以选B。

    2.有的考生认为,表示“在?之后”,要分两种情况,若句子是将来时,用介词in;若句子是过去时,用after。由于此题两句均为将来时,所以选A。

    以上观点有正确的一面,也有不妥的一面。关于介词in 与after 表示“在?之后”的区别应该是:

    1.与一段时间连用时,表示“在?之后”,after 表示以过去时间为起点的一段时间以后,通常与过去时态连用;而in 表示以现在为起点的一段时间以后,通常与将来时态连用:

    Her husband arrived there after two days.

    他丈夫两天后就到了那里。

    Our headmaster will come back in a few minutes.

    我们校长过几分钟就回来。

    2.与一点时间连用时,表示“在?之后”,只能用after(不用in),可用于过去时或将来时:

    They came back after 4 o'clock.

    他们是四点钟以后回来的。

    31.能说by foot 和by the first bus 吗

    例  —Did you go there by bus or____ foot?

    —I went there____ the first bus.

    A.on,at    B.on,by   C.by,on    D.by,in

    此题应选B。容易误选C,错误思路为:由by plane,by bus,by plane,by bike 等推出by foot;又因为by bus 等不用冠词,所以反过来,用了冠词则不用by,而用on,in 等。

    此题要选B。介词by 表示“乘坐”交通工具要注意:

    1.后接交通工具(bus,bike,train 等)或与交通工具密切相关的名词(air,water 等),在句中主要用作方式状语(有时也用作表语等),注意不用冠词或其它限定词:

    Do you go to school by bus or by bike?你上学是乘公共汽车还是骑自行车?

    He came here by air,not by train.他是坐飞机来的,不是坐火车来的。

    2.若表示交通工具的名词有定语修饰,则可以用冠词:

    I'm going by the 9∶30 train.我坐9∶30 的火车去。

    We went to Shanghai by a large ship.我们乘一艘大船去上海。

    3.“步行”或“骑马”,英语用介词on:He came here on foot(horseback).他是步行(骑马)来的。

    4.以下表达与上述用法类似(注意:也不用冠词或其它限定词):

    by phone 用电话 by telegram 用电报

    by letter 用信件 by express 用快件

    by post 用邮寄 by radio 用无线电

    32.shout at ,shout to 的区别是什么

    例    he was so angry that he shouted____everyone present.

    A.at   B.to   C.for    D.with

    此题应选A。容易误选B。shout at sb/shout to sb 的区别可大致描述为:前者多指因为生气等而非善意地对某人吼叫,后者多指因距离远而不得不大声叫喊(否则对方无法听见),不带生气等感情因素。进一步归纳可得出:这类用法中的介词at 表示目标或预定目的,介词to只是客观地表示一种方向。体会以下类似句子:

    1)a.The dog came at the boy.狗向小男孩扑来。(意即咬人)

    b.The dog came to the boy.

    狗向小男孩走过来。(无咬人之意)

    2)a.All of them ran at me.他们都向我扑来。(意即攻击我)

    b.All of them ran to me.他们都向我跑过来。

    (无攻击之意)

    3)a.He threw the ball at me.他把球向我砸来。(意欲打我)

    b.He threw the ball to me.他把球抛给我。(无打人之意)

    4)a.He shouted at his wife.他对他妻子吼叫。(意在训人)

    b.He shouted to his wife.他朝他妻子大声喊叫。

    (无训人之意)



    33.between 只能用于两者吗

    例  ____sewing,cooking,and raising children,she was kept busy.

    A.Between   B.Among   C.At   D.On

    此题很容易误选B,因为题中涉及的是“三者”,所以很容易联想到among,其实此题应选A。

    一般说来,between 指两者,among 指三者。但是在现代英语中,among表示三者(以上)的“在中间”,其宾语通常是一个表示笼统数量或具有复数意义的名词或代词:

    among the children 在孩子们中间/among the crowd 在人群中

    下列情况between 可用于三者(且一般不用among 换):

    1.三者或三者以上的人或物用and 连接时:

    Switzland lies between France,ltaly,Austria and Germany.瑞士位于法、意、奥、德四国之间。

    2.对于三者或三者以上的人或物,若要表示在每两者之间(即彼此之间)时:

    Don't eat anything between meals.在正餐之间不要吃零食。

    3.指事物间的区别或彼此间的关系时:

    Do you know the difference between the three?

    你知道这三者之间的区别吗?

    4.表示由于共同合作的结果时:

    Between them they landed the fish.他们协力把鱼拖上了岸。注:在divide,share 等表示“分享”之类的动词之后若接一个表示三者或三者以上的复数名词,可用between(也可用among):He divided his money between[among] his six children.他把钱分给了6 个儿子。
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:36 | 显示全部楼层 板凳
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (34---50)

    34.这个to 是介词还是不定式符号

    例   We are looking forward to ____ from Mary.

    A.hear    B.hearing   C.heard   D.have heard

    此题应选B。容易误选A,认为其前的to 是不定式符号。to 有时是不定式符号,有时是介词。用作介词时,注意以下常见搭配:

    look forward to 盼望 devote to 致力于,献身于

    pay attention to 注意 stick to 坚持

    be used to 习惯于(但used to 表示过去经常,to 为不定式符号;be used to 表示“被用来”时,to 也是不定式符号)

    on the way to 即将成为(但表示“在做某事的路上”时to 是不定式符号)

    练习题:

    1.He was devoted to____ the poor.

    A.help  B.helping  C.helped  D.being helped

    2.The weather was Cold,but soon he got used to____ there.

    A.live   B.living   C.lived    D.having lived

    3 . You should pay more attention to____ with those who differ with you.

    A.unite and work    B . uniting and working

    C.unite and working  D.uniting and work

    4.She was on her way to____ her Daughter.

    A.see   B.seeing   C.saw   D.have seen

    5.He was on the way to ____ an engineer.

    A.become   B.becoming   C.became  D.be

    答案:1.B 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.B



    35.except 后能接哪些词

    例   A:Does he often come to see you?

       B:No,he never comes____ he is in trouble.

    A.except         B.except that

    C.except when   D.except for

    此题很容易误选B,因为后面是一个从句,所以很容易联想到except that,其实此题应选C。B,C 两者之后均接从句,其区别主要从句意上看:except when 中的when 有“当?时”之意,而except that 则无此义。比较:

    I know nothing about him except that he lives in Paris.

    我除知道他住在巴黎外,其它情况一无所知。

    I like her except when she's angry.

    除了她发怒的时候,我还是挺喜欢她的。

    except 作为介词,后接名词或代词(这是基本用法),除了以上提到的后接that 从句和when 从句外,以下用法也需注意:

    1)副词:She has never come late except recently .

    除了最近一段时间,她从未迟到。

    2)介词短语:The window is never opened except in summer.除了在夏天外,这扇窗户从不打开。

    3)不定式(注意是否带to):

    It had no effect except to make him angry.

    除了惹他生气外,没产生任何效果。

    There was little we could do except wait.

    除了等待我们没有什么办法。

    4)what 从句:I know nothing about it except what he told me.

    除他告诉我的情况外,我对此事一无所知。

    5)where 从句:My papers seem to be everywhere except where they ought to be.

    我的文件似乎完全不在它们应该放置的地方。

    36.except,but ,besides 区别详解

    A:Did you study any other foreign language ____English when  you were at college?

    B:Yes,I studied three.But I have forgotten all____a few words of each.

    A.besies,besides    B.but,except

    C.except,except     D.besides,except

    此题应选D,主要考察except,but,besides 的用法区别:

    1.先说except(but)与besides 的区别:前者表示“除了?之外(不再有?)”,表示的是一种排除的关系;后者表示“除了?之外(还有?)”,表示的是一种累加关系:

    Besides his wife,his daughter also went to see him.

    I go to school every day except [but] Sunday.

    但是以上区别通常只限于肯定句中,在否定句或疑问句中besides也可以表示“除?外,不再有?(=except):

    No one passed the exam besides [except,but] Jim.除吉姆外,没一个人通过考试。

    2.再说except 与but 的区别:一般说来,前者用法较广,后者用法较窄。事实上,在现代英语中,but 的用法十分有限,通常只能用在no(及其复合词),any(及其复合词),every(及其复合词),all,none,who,what,where 等之后。一般说来,若没有出现上述词汇,就不宜用but。如通常不说:The window is never opened but in summer(可用except)。

    3.except,but 一般不用于句首,但besides 可用于句首。

    4.关于but for 与except for:前者表示“若不是”,通常与虚拟语气连用;后者表示“除外”,指不同类比较。

    37.你会使用形式主语吗

    例  Is____ necessary to complete the design before

    National Day?

    A.this   B.that   C.it   D.he

    此题应选C,其余各项均有一定的干扰性。这里主要考察形式主语it 的用法。一般说来,当主语是比较复杂的成分(如不定式、动名词、从句等)时,通常在句首使用形式主语it,而把真正的主语放在后面:

    Is it necessary to tell his father everything?

    有必要把这一切都告诉他父亲吗?

    It is wrong to say anything like that on that occasion.

    在那种场合说那样的话是错误的。

    It's no good sitting up too late.熬夜没有好处。

    It'll be wonderful lying on the beach all day.

    整天躺在海滩上该是多么妙啊!

    It is quite clear that he has read the book.

    很显然,他读过这本书。

    It's a problem where we could get so much money .

    我们到哪里去弄这么多钱,这是一个难题。

    有时可在用作主语的不定式前加上介词for/of 短语:

    It is very kind of you to say that.你这样说,真是太好了。

    It is important for us to keep the balance of nature.

    我们要保持生态平衡,这点很重要。

    38.你会使用形式宾语吗

    例  I don't think ____ possible to master a foreign language without  much memory work.

    A.this    B.that    C.its   D.it

    此题的选项A,B 都容易误选。其实此题应选D,主要考察形式宾语it 的使用。一般说来,形式宾语it 主要用于以下句型:动词+ it+宾语补足语+真正的宾语

    其中的动词通常是think,find,feel,believe,take,consider,make 等;其中的宾语补足语通常是形容词,有时是名词;而其中真正的宾语通常是比较复杂的成分(如不定式、动名词、从句等):

    We found it difficult to persuade her.我们发现很难说服她。

    He makes it a rule to get up before dawn.他习惯于天亮前起床。

    We found it an easy thing to get along with him.

    我们发现与他相处很容易。

    I think it very strange that he goes out walking almost every night.

    我认为他几乎每晚都出去散步是很奇怪的。

    有时可在用作宾语的不定式前加上介词for/of 短语:

    Poeple felt it impossible for man to fly into the outer space some years ago.

    几年前,人们觉得人不可能飞入太空。

    I don't think it wise for [of] him to choose such a difficult subject.

    我认为他选择这样难的学科是不明智的。



    39.介绍一种特殊用法的形式宾语

    例   May I take____ that you have agreed to stay with us.

    A.this   B.that   C.   it D.all

    此题选C,这是一种比较特殊的形式宾语。一般说来,形式宾语it主要用于以下句型:动词+it+宾语补足语+真正的宾语。也就是说在通常情况下,要用形式宾语,原句型应有宾语补足语。以上句型特殊之处就在于:在形式宾语和真正的宾语(名词性从句)之间没有宾语补足语。类似情况有:

    I take it(that)you agree.我以为你同意了。

    Lenin has it that imperialism is the last stage of capitalism.

    列宁认为帝国主义是资本主义的最后阶段。

    Report has it that about 30 people were killed in the accident.

    据报道,在这次事故中大约有30 人丧命。

    I'll see to it that all these letters will be sent to the post before twelve.

    我将注意让所有的信件在12 点以前送到邮局。

    You may depend on it that he will turn up in time.

    你可以相信他会及时赶到的。

    I can't answer for it that the boy is honest.(=I can't answer for his honesty.)

    我不能保证这个男孩是诚实的。

    I can swear to it that this man stole our money.

    我可以发誓,这个人偷了我们的钱。

    40.it 用法—特例

    例     I hate ____ when people ask me for money

    A.it   B.that   C.these   D.them

    此题应选A,这是it 一种比较特殊的用法,虽然一般书上论述不多,但它却经常出现在各级各类考试中,比如有这样一道题:

    I hate ____when people talk with their mouths full.

    A.it    B.that   C.these   D.them

    此题答案为A。

    适合于以上用法的动词不多,常见的主要有hate,like,当它们后面接有when /if 从句时,从句前应有it:

    I don' t like it when she tells me how to do things.

    我不喜欢她对我做事指手划脚。

    She won't like it if you arrive late.她不喜欢你迟到。

    He hates it when people use her bike.

    他讨厌别人用她的自行车。

    I hate it if you say such things in public.

    我讨厌你在大庭广众之下说那样的事。

    有时动词appreciate 后接if 从句,从句前也要用it:

    I would appreciate it very much if you would help me with it.

    如果你能帮助我做这事,我会十分感激。

    I should much appreciate it if you would arrange this for us.

    如果你能替我安排这事我将非常感激。

    41.it 何时可以指人

    例   a.Jim is at the door.____wants to see you.

    b.Someone is at the door.____must be Jim.

    A.That,It   B.It,He   C.He,It   D.who, He

    此题应选C。第a 句填代词he,是因为前面一句用了Jim 这一身份和性别都很明确的名词;第b 句填代词it,是因为前面一句用了someone这一指代不明确的代词。一般说来,在指代身份或性别明确的人时,通常要根据情况用代词he/she;若是指代身份或性别不明的人,则用代词it:

    I don't know who it is.我不知道那是谁。

    A tall man stood up and shook hands with her.It was the general manager.

    一个高个子站起来同她握了手,他是总经理。

    Someone must have been here.But we have no idea who it was.

    一定有人来过,但我们不知道是谁。

    There was somebody standing in front of the shop, but I couldn't see who it was.

    商店前站着一个人,但我没看清是谁。

    A:Who has let out the secret?是谁泄漏了秘密?

    B:It must be a big mouth.一定是个快嘴。

    A:I hear a knock at the door.我听见有人在敲门。

    B:It must be the postman.一定是邮递员来了。

    A:Do you know who that is?你知道那个人是谁吗?

    B:I suppose it is Mary's father.我想那是玛丽的父亲。

    42.it 在某些固定句式中的使用

    例    Does ____ matter if he can't finish the job on time?

    A.this   B.that   C.he  D.it

    此题选D。注意在以下句式中通常都用it 作主语:

    It looks as if he is very rich.他看起来好像很富有。

    It seems that he is interested in music.他似乎对音乐有兴趣。

    It appears as if they have lost interest.看来他们已失去了兴趣。

    It happened that he was there with us.

    碰巧他当时和我们在一起。

    It matters little if I miss my bus.

    即使我没搭上公共汽车也没什么大不了的。

    顺便说一下It doesn't matter.的有关用法:

    1.It doesn't matter.单独使用(即其后不接词)时,也可说成That doesn't matter.其意为“没关系”(主要用来回答道歉和表示某事不是很重要):

    A:Would you go there with me?你愿和我一起去吗?

    B:I'd like to,but I have to post these letters.

    我很愿意去,但我要去寄这些信。

    A:That [It] doesn't matter.没关系。

    2.It doesn't matter.

    若不是单独使用,而是在其后跟有从句,则句首的it 便不能改为that:

    It doesn't matter to me whether she is pleased or not.

    她是否满意对我而言并不重要。

    43.it 在强调句中的使用

    例  ____these boys that played tricks on their teachers.

    A.They were       B.It were

    C.There were      D.It was

    此题应选D。这是一个强调句型,其基本结构为:

    It is+被强调部分+ that [who]+其它

    该句型应注意以下几点:

    1.不管被强调部分是单数还是复数,其前一律用It is/It was,而不能用They are/There were 之类的。

    2.被强调部分是指人时,被强调部分后可用that/who,被强调部分指物时,被强调部分后只能用that。

    3.被强调部分是指时间或地点时,被强调部分后通常用that,一般不用when,where 之类的。

    It is I who am right.是我对。

    It was you that were wrong.是你错了。

    It was in Japan that he died.他是死于日本。

    It was yesterday that he got married.他是昨天结婚的。

    It was a computer that he bought last week.

    他上个星期买的是一台电脑。

    Where was it that she lived?她是住在什么地方?

    When was it that he left for Japan?

    他是什么时候离开去日本的?

    Who is it that teaches you English?是谁教你们英语?

    44.这里为什么要分别用一般现在时和一般将来时

    例   —When ____again?

    —I don't know.But when he____,I'll let you know.

    A.he comes,comes      B.will he come,will come

    C.he comes,will come     D.will he come,comes

    此题应选D。第一句为特殊疑问句(when=何时),根据句意,应用一般将来时态。第二句为一个含有条件状语从句的主从复合句(when=当?的时候)。按语法规则:在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。请做以下选择题:

    1.The football match will be put off if it____.

    A.will rain    B.rains

    C.rained      D.is raining

    要特别注意分清:由when 和if 引导的从句是状语从句还是宾语从句:

    2.1) I won't go if it ____tomorrow.(状语从句)

    2)I don't know if it ____tomorrow.(宾语从句)

    A.rains        B.will rain

    C.is raining     D.has rained

    答案:1.B 2.1)A 2)B

    45.这个宾语从句的时态需要与主句时态呼应吗

    例  a.He told us that the earth____ round the sun.

    b.At one time some scientists thought that the sun____ round  the earth.

    A.tums,tums       B.tumed,tumed

    C.tumed,tums      D.tums,tumed

    此题应选D。容易误选A,B。

    有的考生根据时态呼应规则认为:本题主句是过去时态,所以宾语从句也用过去时态(选B);有的考生认为,宾语从句是客观真理,所以都用一般现在时态(选A)。

    以上看法既对,又不全对。就一般情况而论:主句是一般过去时态时,其宾语从句应用过去的某种时态与之呼应。但是若宾语从句表示的是客观真理,则不管主句是什么时态,宾语从句一律用一般现在时。但值得注意的是:本题b 句的宾语从句并不是客观真理(所以不能用一般现在时)。

    下列情况即使主句是过去时,宾语从句也用现在时:

    1.表示客观真理:

    He told the little boy that the sun rises in the east.

    他告诉这个小男孩太阳从东方升起。

    2.表示科学事实:

    The teacher said that hydrogen is the lightest element.

    老师说氢是最轻的元素。

    3.某些格言:

    He knew that pride goes before a fall.他知道骄兵必败。



    46.将来时间表示方法知多少

    例     These scientists________ for Japan tonight.

    A.are to leave        B.have left

    C.will be left         D.left

    此题应选 A。英语中除了用“will/shall+动词原形”来表示将来外,还有多种表示将来的方式:

    1. be going to+动词原形。主要表示打算和预见:

    He's going to be a doctor when he grows up.

    他长大后想当医生。

    Look at the black clouds——there is going to be a storm.

    你看这些乌云——会有一场暴风雨。

    2.be+现在分词(即现在进行时)。主要表示按计划或安排要生的事(多用于表示“位移”的动词):

    We are leaving on Sunday 我们星期日出发。

    The plane is taking off at 5∶30.飞机5∶30 起飞。

    3.be+不定式。主要表示按计划或安排即将要发生的动作;有时也表示命令、禁止或可能性:

    Where are we to stay tonight?今晚我住什么地方?

    Tell him he's not to be back late.告诉他不准迟回。

    注:be about+不定式,也表示将来(指即将要发生的事),但通常不与具体时间连用:

    He is about to leave.他即将要离开。

    4.一般现在时。表示按规定或时间表预计要发生的事:

    The train leaves at 7∶25 this evening.

    火车今晚7∶25 分开。

    Tomorrow is Wednesday.明天是星期三。

    47.will do 与be going to do 有何差别

    例    —I've come out without any money.

    —Never mind I____you some.

    A.am going to lend        B.will lend

    C.have lent               D.am to lend

    此题应选B。容易误选A。这里主要谈一谈有关“will+动词原形”和“be going to+动词原形”的区别:在通常情况下两者都可表示将来时间和意图,且有时可换用:

    我不会告诉你这事的。

    正:I won't tell you about it.

    正:I'm not going to tell you about it.

    但是此时要注意:若是强调某个意图是经过事先考虑好的,则通常要用be going to ;若是表示某个意图没有经过事先考虑,而是在说话的当时才临时想到的,则通常用will,且以上两种情况通常不能换用。比较并体会:

    1.—Come to the party.来参加晚会吧。

    —OK,I'll bring my boyfriend.

    好的,我把我的男朋友也带来。(临时想法)

    2.—Where is the telephone book?电话薄在哪?

    —I'll get it for you.我去给你拿。(临时想法)

    3.—Why are you taking it out?干吗要把它拿出来?

    —I'm going to wash it.我想把它洗一洗。(事先考虑)

    4.— Have you bought a typewriter?你买了台打字机吗?

    —Yes.I'm going to leam to type.

    是的,我想学打字。(事先考虑)

      

    48.怎样正确理解现在完成时

    例    You don't need to describe her.I____her several times.

    A.had met    B.have me   t C.met    D.meet

    此题应选B。主要考察现在完成时的用法。现在完成时是各类考试的常考考点,其基本用法有两种:

    一、持续性用法(或叫未完成用法):指的是动作过去发生,但在过去并未完成,而是从过去一直持续到现在。此时多半有表示持续性的时间状语(如:for 5 years,since 1990 等)。

    二、影响性用法(或叫已完成用法):指的是动作过去发生,且在过去已经完成,但这个过去发生的动作对现在有影响,且说话者正好要强调的就是这个影响。现在完成时的这个用法,一般没有明显的时间状语,主要通过上下文来理解。

    1.—Where____ the radio? I can't see it anywhere.

    —I ____it right here.But now it's gone.

    A.did you put,have put

    B.have you put,put

    C.had you put, was putting

    D. were you putting,have put

    2.—Who is Jerry Cooper?

    --- ____?I saw you shaking hands with him at the meeting.

    A.Don't you meet him yet

    B.Hadn't you met him yet

    C.Didn't you meet him yet

    D.Haven't you met him yet

    答案:1.B 2.D

      49.过去进行时用法一得

    例   I don't think Jim saw me ;he____ into space.

    A.just stared         B.was just staring

    C.has just stared     D.had just stared

    此题应选B。主要考察动词过去进行时的基本用法(即动作在过去某一时刻正在进行)。此题的上文设置比较巧妙:前面的主句用了I don't think(指现在的看法),而其后的宾语从句用的是saw(指过去的动作),也就是说此题的语境是:现在谈论过去的情况,全句意为:我认为吉姆当时没看见我,(因为)他当时正在朝天空看。

    1.My brother____ while he his bicycle and hurt himself.

    A.fell,was riding       B.fell, were riding

    C.had fallen,rode       D.had fallen,was riding

    2.Tom ____into the house when no one____.

    A.slipped,was looking      B.had slipped,looked

    C.slipped, had looked      D.was slipped,looked

    3.As she ____the newspaper,Granny____ asleep.

    A.read,was falling           B.was reading, fell

    C.was reading,was falling    D.read,fell

    4.I first met Lisa three years ago.She____at a radio shop at the time.

    A.has worked            B.was working

    C.had been working       D.had worked

    答案:1.A 2.A 3.B 4.B

    50.正确理解和运用过去完成时的关键是什么

    例    He asked me to have a drink with him. I said that it was at least ten years since I____ a good drink.

    A.had enjoyed        B.was enjoying

    C.enjoyed            D.had been enjoying

    此题应选A。容易误选C。本题主要考察过去完成时的基本用法(过去完成时是各类考试的常考考点),此用法的关键是要正确理解“过去的过去”这五个字,也就是说:过去完成时是一个相对时态,它必须以一个过去时间作参照,而这个过去完成时所表示的动作要发生在这个过去时间的过去。做这类题时,考生一定要注意一定的上下文,要注意寻找直接或间接的过去参照时间:

    1.He was disappointed that most of the guests____ when he ___at  the party.

    A.left,had arrived      B.left, arrived

    C.had left,had arrived   D.had left,arrived

    2.The students____ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book.

    she____ in the office.

    A.had written,left        B.were writing,has left

    C.had written,had left    D.were writing,had left

    3. Helen____ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ____ home.

    A.has left,comes      B.left,had come

    C.had left,came       D.had left ,would come

    答案:1.D 2.D 3.C
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:39 | 显示全部楼层 地板
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (51---67)

    51.This is the first time 后的从句通常用什么时态

    例    —Do you know our town at all?

    —No, this is the first time I____ here.

    A.was       B. have been

    C.came     D.am coming

    此题应选B。这与句中的this is the first time 有关:一般说来,在It[This] is the first time+ that 结构中,that 从句通常用现在完成时:

    It's the first time(that) the boy has spoken to a foreigner.

    这个男孩还是第一次同外国人说话。

    It's the first time that she's seen an elephant.

    这是她第一次见到大象。

    有时以上结构中的first 也可换成second,third,fourth 等;其中的time 也可换成其它名词:

    It's the first month that he has lived here.

    这是他第一个月住在这里。

    This is the second cigarette that he has smoked today.

    这是他今天抽的第二支烟。在It was the first time that-结构中, that-从句通常用过去完成时,有时也用一般过去时,有时若有包括现在在内的时间状语,偶尔还可用现在完成时:

    I was lucky because that was the second time I(had) visited Japan that year.

    我很幸运,那是我那年第二次访问日本。

    It was the first time this year that he hadn't[hasn't] worked

    on a Saturday.这是今年来他第一次在星期六不上班。

      

    52.做这个时态题完全看语境

    例   I met Jim last week.We____ each other for about twenty years since we left Japan.

    A.didn't meet      B.don't meet

    C.haven't met      D.hadn't met

    此题应选D。不少考生会误选C,因为这句当中有一个由since 引导的时间状语从句。确实,在与since 状语从句连用的主句中,时态通常是用现在完成时:

    He has lived here since he came here.

    自从他来到这里,他就一直住在这儿。

    We haven't heard from her since she left.

    自从她离开后,我们就一直未收到她的来信。

    I have been at his bedside ever since he became ill.

    自从他生病以来,我一直守在他床边。

    以上各例之所以用了现在完成时,是因为since 表示“自从?以来”,这刚好与现在完成时的持续性用法一致。但是这种用法不是绝对的,有时在特定的语言环境下也可能有例外。试比较:

    1.We haven't met each other for about 20 years since we left Japan.

    2.I met Jim last week.We hadn't met each other for about twenty years since we left Japan.

    第1 句用现在完成时,这大家比较好理解。但是第2 句用过去完成时,有的考生就感到费解了。其实第2 句用过去完成时的主要原因是I met Jim last week,既然“我上个星期见到了吉姆”,所以“30 年未见面”显然应在“上星期”这一过去时间之前(即“过去的过去”),所以要用过去完成时。

    53.这是根据语境确定时态的一道妙题

    例     —Excuse me,sir.Smoking is not allowed here .

    —Oh,sorry I____.

    A.don't know         B.didn't know

    C.haven't known      D.can't know

    此题应选B。这是一道很好的测试时态的语境题。此题的情景是:一方提醒另一方不准抽烟,对方表示歉意并说自己不知道。这里的“不知道”显然是指对方“提醒”之前“不知道”(所以用过去时态);假若用一般现在时,则指在对方提醒之后还仍然不知道,这不是很荒唐吗?在做时态试题时,要特别注意上下文的语境:

    1.—We could have walked to the station;it was so near.

    —Yes.A taxi____at all necessary.

    A.wasn't         B.hadn't been

    C.wouldn't be    D.won't be

    2.—Your phone number again?I ____quite catch it.

    —It's 7226109.

    A.didn't       B.couldn't

    C.don't       D.can't

    3.—Can I help you,sir?

    —Yes I bought this radio here yesterday, but it ____ work.

    A.didn't       B.won't

    C.can't       D.doesn't

    4.—Alice,why didn't you come yesterday?

    —I____,but I had an unexpected visitor.

    A.had   B.would  C.was going to  D.did

    答案:1.A 2.A 3.D 4.C

    54.take place 等能用于被动语态吗

    例     Great changes ____in China since 1978.

    A.have taken place        B.took place

    C.have been taken place    D.were taken place

    此题应选A。首先要排除C,D,因为take place(发生)是不及物动词,所以不能用被动语态;另一方面,因为句子中的since1978,所以句子宜用现在完成时A。

    大家知道,不及物动词没有被动语态(因为不及物动词没有宾语,转换成被动语态便没有主语)。但这里要注意的是:由于受汉语的影响,有些不及物动词很容易被考生误认为是及物动词,从而误用被动语态。这类易用错的动词主要的有take place 发生/happen 发生/come about 发生/breakout 爆发/appear 出现/disappear 消失/last 持续等)。

    他出什么事了?

    误:What was[is] happened to him?

    正:What has happened to him?

    每四年举行一次选举。

    误:Elections are teken place every four years.

    正:Elections take place every four years.

    我不知道这事是怎么发生的。

    误:I don't know how this thing was come about.

    正:I don't know how this thing came about.

    55.通常不用于被动语态的静态动词

    例   那里的人缺乏食物。

    1.People there lack food.(正)

    2.Food is lacked by people there.(误)

    从形式上看,句2 是句1 相应的被动形式,既然句1 为正句,那么句2 从理论上说应该是成立的。而事实上句2 却是个错句。

    在英语中,并不是所有的及物动词都可以用于被动语态的,有些动词(尤其是那些静态动词)尽管它们可以带宾语,但却不用于被动语态,这种动词考生容易弄错,其中主要的有:have,lack,fit,suit,cost,let,like 等:

    他有一台电脑。

    正:He has a computer.

    误:A computer is had by him.

    他当时正在洗澡。

    正:He was taking a bath.

    误:A bath was being taken by him.

    我的鞋不适合。

    正:My shoes don't fit me.

    误:I am not fitted by my shoes.

    这架钢琴花了她6000 美元。

    正:The piano cost her 6000 dollars.

    误:She was cost her 6000 dollars.

    误:6000 dollars was cost her.

    56.容易出错的被动语态时态

    例       —Have you moved into the new house?

    —Not yet.The rooms____.

    A.are being painted     B.are painting

    C.are painted           D.are being painting

    此题选A。从句意上看,此题应选被动式(这是显然的),同时注意:被动语态要用现在进行时形式(这点容易忽视)。

    在做动词的语态题时,同时要注意其时态形式:

    You are wanted on the phone.有人给你打电话.(一般现在时)

    When was the building completed?

    这座大楼什么时候建成?(一般过去时)

    You won't be allowed to take so much luggage with you.

    不会准你带这么多行李。(一般将来时)

    A new railway is now being built.

    一条新铁路正在修建。(现在进行时)

    The roads were being widened.

    道路当时正在加宽。(过去进行时)

    Such a thing has never been heard of before.

    这种事以前从未听说过。(现在完成时)

    有时被动式动词可与情态动词连用:

    The work must be finished at once.这工作必须马上完成。

    The method can still be improved upon.这方法还可以改进。

    My umbrella may have been left on the train.

    我的伞可能忘在火车上了。

    57.带双宾语动词的被动语态有何规律

    主动:He answered me the question.(正)

    被动:I was answered the question by him.(正)

    被动:The question was answered me by him.(误)

    本题涉及带双宾语动词的被动语态问题。这个问题可以从三个方面去概括:

    一、有些带双宾语的动词转换为被动语态时,可以有两种形式(即可用直接宾语或间接宾语作主语),这类动词主要的有:buy,give,lend,pay,show,teach,tell,offer,leave,award 等:

    他给了她一些钱。

    主动:He gave her some money.(正)

    被动:She was given some money by him.(正)

    被动:Some money was given (to)her by him.(正)

    二、有些带双宾语的动词转换为被动语态时,通常要用直接宾语作主语,这类动词主要的有:do,make,pass,sell,sing,write 等:

    他给她写了封信。

    主动:He wrote her a letter.(正)

    被动:A letter was written(to)her by him.(正)

    被动:She was written a letter by him.(少见)

    三、有些带双宾语的动词转换为被动语态时,通常要用间接宾语作主语,这类动词主要的有:answer,refuse,save,spare,deny,envy等:

    他们不允许我入场。

    主动:They refused me admittance.(正)

    被动:I was refused admittance by them.(正)

    被动:A admittance was refused me by them.(少见)

    58.“get+过去分词”也是被动语态吗

    例    Cleaning women in big cities usually get____ by the hour.

    A.pay   B.paying   C.paid   D.to pay

    此题应选C。句意为“大城市的清洁女工通常按小时计报酬”。句中的get paid 也是一种被动语态。

    再如:

    They all got punished.他们都受到了惩罚。

    How did it get broken?它是怎样打破的?

    Our house is getting painted.我们的房子要刷漆。

    They are to get married.他们要结婚了。

    关于“be+过去分词“与“get+过去分词”的区别:

    1.总的说来,构成被动语态用be 的情形多,用get 的情形少。在现代英语中用get 构成被动语态主要见于口语或非正式文体中。

    2.从含义上看,用get 构成的被动语态多侧重指动作的结果而非动作本身,并且这种结构尤其用于谈论一些人们未曾料到的突发事件。试体会:

    The dog got killed by the car.狗被汽车压死了。

    He got caught by the police driving at 60 kms through

    Cam-bridge.他在穿过剑桥时车速为 60 公里,所以被警察抓住。有人认为用 get 构成的被动语态不能与 by 短语连用,其实在现代英语中是可以这样用的(见上例)。

    3.另外若句中用了 in the end,at long last 等也通常可用 get构成被动语态:

    In the end he got invited.最后还是邀请了他。

    59.用主动表被动的常见动词

    例   The pen____quite smoothly.

    A.writes       B.is written

    C.has written   D.is to be writtten

    此题应选A。英语中有些及物动词在用作不及物动词时,虽然形式上为主动,但意义上却是被动,这种用法主要见于一般现在时的情况(有时也可能是将来时、进行时等):

    Meat cuts easily.肉容易切。

    The book sells well.这书销路好。

    My coat caught on a nail.我的衣服被钉子钩住了。

    This kind of cloth washes very well.这种布很经洗。

    Good leather will wear for years.好的皮革可以穿好几年。

    The book is printing.这本正在印刷。

    The house is building.房子正在建筑中。

    The book is selling well.这书销路好。

    尽管以上各例有时也可以直接使用被动语态形式:

    Good leather will be worn for years.

    The book is being printed.

    但是在实际运用中,用主动表被动的情况更普遍。不过值得注意的是:像本题所涉及的例子却只能用主动表被动:The pen writes quite smoothly.(这笔写起来很流畅),因为若直接用被动语态:The pen is written quite smoothly.那么它相应的主动语态即为:

    He writes the pen quite smoothly.这显然是荒唐的。

    60.这类系表结构后不定式要用主动式表被动义

    例    This book is difficult____.

    A.to understand     B.to be understand

    C.to understand it    D.being understood

    此题应选A。容易误选B。从意思上看,本句主语与其后不定式有动宾关系,所以不少考生便误选了不定式的被动式,但是这里有一点特殊之处。

    按照英语习惯,由easy,hard,nice,difficult,amusing,interesting,dangerous,impossible,important,pleasant,等形容词构成的系表结构后,接用不定式时,通常要用主动式表示被动含义:

    English is not easy to learn.英语不容易学。

    This question is difficult[hard]to answer.这个问题很难回答。

    That bird is impossible to catch.那只鸟不可能被抓住。

    The river is dangerous to swim in.在这条河里游泳很危险。

    Football is interesting to watch.看踢足球很有意思。

    以上结构可以换成用it 作形式主语的句型:英语单词难记。

    正:English words are difficult to remember.

    正:It is difficult to remember English words.

    写那样一本书很容易。

    正:Such a book is easy to write.

    正:It is easy to write such a book.

    61.介绍一种特殊的被动结构

    例   I don't know him,but he____to have a lotof money.

    A.says   B.said   C.is said   D.is saying

    此题应选C。这是一类比较特殊的被动语态。

    试比较以下各组句子:

    据说他是一个诚实的人。

    a.People say that he is an honest man.

    b.It is said that he is an honest man.

    c.He is said to be an honest man.

    据说龟比象活得久。

    a.People say that tortoises live longer than elephants.

    b.It is said that tortoises live longer than elephants.

    c.Tortoises are said to live longer than elephants.

    人们认为他已离开了。

    a.People believe that he has left.

    b.It is believed that he has left.

    c.He is believed to have left.

    他们认为他取得了很大的进步。

    a.They think that he has made great progress.

    b.It's thought that he has made great proqress.

    c.He is thought to have made great progress.

    常用于这类结构的动词有:say,think,believe,report 等。

    62.这句谓语要用主动式还是被动式

    例   I____ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

    A.gave  B.was given  C.to give  D.be giving

    此题应选B。此题考察考生能否识别被动语态。一般说来,关于这个问题请注意以下几点:

    1.只有及物动词才有被动语态。

    2.及物动词必须有宾语,否则可考虑用被动语态。

    3.“双宾动词”(即带双宾语的动词)若只有一个宾语,也应考虑用被动语态。

    4.有时句子是否使用被动语态,要从句子意思来考虑。以下各例从各类考题中选出,请做一做:

    1 . The police found that the house____and a lot of  things________.

    A.has broken into,has beenn stolen

    B.had broken into,had been stolen

    C.has been broken into,stolen

    D.had been broken into,stolen

    2.When and where to hold the meeting____yet.

    A.is not decided    B.are not decided

    C.has not decided   D.have not decided

    3.In some parts of the world,tea____with milk and sugar.

    A.is serving      B.is served

    C.serves         D.served

    4.I need one more stamp before my  collection____.

    A.has completed       B.completes

    C.has been completed   D.is completed

    答案:1.D 2.A 3.B 4.A

    63.使役动词或感官动词后的不定式何时带to

    例   He had often made his little sister____,buttoday he was  made____by his little sister.

    A.cry,to cry      B.crying,crying

    C.cry,cry         D.to cry,cry

    此题应选A。一般说来,在“感官动词”(如 see,hear,watch,feel,notice,look at,listen to 等)以及某些“使役动词”(如 make等)之后的复合宾语中,不定式是不能带to 的,但若是变为相应的被动语态,则应加上这个to:

    1.John was made____the truck for a week as a punishment.

    A.to wash         B.washing

    C.wash            D.to be washed

    2.Paul doesn't have to be made____.He always work shard.

    A.learn         B.to learn

    C.learned       D.learning

    3.He not only made the workers____long hours but he was also  seen____them.

    A.work,beat     B.to work,to beat

    C.work,to beat    D.to work,beat

    4.a. He often listened to others____.

    b.He was often listened to____in this room.

    A.sing,to sing      B.to sing,sing

    C.sing,sing        D.to sing,to sing

    答案:1.A 2.B 3.C 4.A

    64.哪些动词后要接动名词而不接不定式作宾语

    例    I would appreciate____back this afternoon.

    A.you to call      B.you call

    C.your calling     D.you're calling

    此题应选C。因为动词appreciate(感激)之后通常接动名词作宾语。类似地,以下动词通常也只用动名词作宾语:

    appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 can't help 禁不住consider 考虑 dislike 厌恶 enjoy 喜爱excuse 原谅 finish 完成 give up 放弃 imagine 想象 keep 保持 mind 介意miss 错过 practise 练习 put off 推迟 risk 冒险 stop 停止 suggest 建议 forbid 禁止 advise 建议 allow 允许 permit 允许

    I couldn't help laughing when I heard the news.

    听到这个消息我禁不住笑了起来。

    I can't imagine doing work with them.我无法想象与他们一起工作。

    He practises playing the piano every day.他每天练习弹钢琴。

    Would you mind opening the window?打开窗户你介意吗?

    The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught.

    这只小松鼠很幸运,没有被抓住。

    He advised selling the old car.他建议卖掉这部旧汽车。

    65.哪些动词后要接不定式而不接动名词作宾语

    例   We expected____but we didn't manage____thetickets.

    A.to go,to get      B.going,getting

    C.to go,getting     D.going,to get

    此题应选A,因为动词expect,manage 之后接动词作宾语时,通常要用不定式而不用动名词。类似地,以下动词通常也只能以不定式作宾语:

    agree 同意 ask 要求 choose 决定 decide 决定 expect 期待

    hope 希望manage 设法得以 prepare 准备 offer 主动提出

    pretend 假装 promise 答应 refuse 拒绝

    wish 希望 want 想要

    1.She pretended____me when I passed by.

    A.not to see     B.not seeing

    C.to not see     D.having not seen

    2.We agreed____here but so far she hasn't turned up yet.

    A.having met    B.meeting   C.to meet   D.to have met

    3.He offered____us themoney,sowe decided____a computer.

    A.to lend,to buy    B.lending,buying

    C.to lend,buying    D.lending,to buy

    4.He chose____at home because he had a cold.

    A.staying         B.to stay

    C.having stayed   D.to having stayed

    答案:1.A 2.C 3.A 4.B

      

    66.like,love 等动词后接不定式还是动名词

    例   Little Jim should love____to the theatre thisevening.

    A.to be taken      B.to take

    C.being taken      D.taking

    此题应选A。因为从语法上看 should love 之后只能接不定式,所以答案只能在A,B 中选择;又因为从句意上看应该用被动式,所以只能选A。

    在英语中,有些动词其后接动词作宾语时,可用不定式也可用动名词,且含义大致相同。这类动词主要有:like,love,begin,start,hate,prefer,continue,intend,can't bear。(也有人认为用不定式多  指特定动作,用动名词多指经常性动作,但总的说来,在现代英语中这两类结构区别不大):

    He like watching[to watch] TV.他喜欢看电视。

    但是以下两点须注意:

    1.当like,love 与would,should 连用时,其后只用不定式而不 用动名词(见本题)。

    若表示“本来想要”这样的意思,后接不定式的完成式:

    I'd love to have gone to the party yesterday but I had to workextra hours to finish a report.

    昨天我本想去参加晚会的,但我要加班写一个报告。

    2.当begin,start 等动词本身为现在分词时或当其后接表示心理状态的动词时,

    其后的动词通常用不定式:

    I was beginning(starting)to cook supper.

    我正要开始煮晚饭。

    He began to like poetry when he was a boy.

    他在童年时代就开始喜欢诗。



    67.allow,permit,advise,forbid 等后接动词有讲究

    例   a.We don't allow____in the office.

    b.We don't allow people____in the office.

    c.People are not allowed____in the office.

    A.smoking       B.to smoke

    C.smoked       D.smoke

    此题答案为a 句选A,b 句和c 句均选B。一般说来,动词allow(允许)之后应接动名词作宾语,但是若其后接有名词或代词作宾语,则其宾语后的补足语应用不定式,而不是动名词(注意:c 句与b 句同义,只是c 句为b 句的被动形式)。

    类似以上用法的动词还有permit,advise,forbid 等:

    1.a.We don't permit____on the grass.

    b.We don't permit people____on the grass.

    c.People are not permitted____on the grass.

    A.walk   B.to walk  C.walking  D.walked

    2.a.He advised____early.

    b.He advised us____early.

    c.We were advised____early.

    A.leave    B.to leave   C.leaving   D.left

    但动名词前用所有格或物主代词作逻辑主语是可能的:

    3.a.He forbids me ____ with them.

    b.He forbids my ____ with them.

    A.to go   B.going   C.go   D.went

    答案:1.C,B,B 2.C,B,B 3.A,B
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:40 | 显示全部楼层 5#
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (68---84)


    68.remember 等动词后接不定式或动名词含义不同

    例   She didn't remember ____ him before.

    A.having met       B.have met

    C.to meet          D.to having met

    此题应选A。一般说来,在动词remember(记得),forget(忘记),regret(后悔)等之后,若接不定式,表示该不定式所表示的动作还未发生;若是接动名词(可用一般式或完成式,偶尔还可用不定式的完成式),则表示该动名词所表示的动作已经发生。如:

    1.Do you remember ____ me at a party last year?

    A.meet  B.to meet  C.meeting  D.met

    2.—The light in the office is still on.

    —Oh,I forgot____.

    A.turning it off         B.turn it Off

    C.to turn it off         D.having turned it off

    3.—You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.

    —Well,now I regret ____ that.

    A.to do              B.to be doing

    C.to having done     D.having done

    4.—I regret ____ that I can't help you.

    —That's all right.

    A.say   B.to say    C.saying   D.said

    在表示已发生的动作时,若句中含有具体的过去时间状语,则以用动名词的一般式为宜:

    I regret telling you about it yesterday.

    我后悔昨天把此事告诉了你。

    答案:1.C 2.C 3.D 4.B

    69.stop 等动词后接不定式或动名词含义不同

    例    He was very tired so he stopped ____ a rest.

    A.have    B.to have   C.having    D.to having

    此题应选B。在动词 stop(停止),go on(继续)等之后,接不定式或动词的-ing 形式都可以,但含义有差别:stop 之后若接不定式,表示停止正在做的事情而去做另外一件事(即去做不定式表示的动作);若接动词的-ing 形式,则只表示停止正在做的事情(即停止-ing 动词所表示的动作);go on 之后若接不定式,表示的是做完一件事情后,接着做另外一件事(即做不定式所表示的动作);若接动词的-ing 形式,则表示继续做正在做的事(即继续做- ing 动词表示的动作)。如:

    1.He reached the top of the hill and stopped ____ on a big rock by the side of the path.

    A.to have rested              B.resting

    C.to rest                      D.rest

    2.They stopped____,but there was no more sound.

    A.listen                  B.listening

    C.to listen                D.to have listened

    3.When he saw us,he stopped____,got up and shook hands with us.

    A.to read     B.reading     C.read      D.to be reading

    4.You can't go on ____ all night without a rest.

    A.to work           B.working

    C.work             D.to have worked

    5.Goon ____ theother exercisesafteryou have finished this one.

    A.to do             B.doing

    C.with              D.to be doing

    答案:1.C 2.C 3.B 4.B 5.A

    70.mean 等动词接不定式或动名词含义不同

    例  He meant ____ the early bus,and that meant ____up before five  o'clock.

    A.to catch,to get      B.catching,getting

    C.to catch,getting     D.catching,to get

    此题应选C。在动词mean,try,can't help 等之后接不定式或动名词,动词本身含义有变化。试比较并体会:

    a.mean + to do sth 打算做某事        mean + doing sth 意味着

    b.try + to do sth 设法做某事      try + doing sth 做某事试一试(看有什么效果)

    c.can't help + to do sth 不能帮助做某事    can't help + doing sth 禁不住做某事

    练习题

    1.Oh,sorry.I didn't mean ____ your feelings.

    A.hurt    B.to hurt   C.hurting    D.to hurting

    2.This illness will mean ____ to hospital.

    A.go   B.to go    C.going    D.to going

    3.I couldn't help ____ when I heard the joke.

    A.laugh    B.to laugh   C.laughing    D.laughed

    4.Don't take the medicine.It can't help ____ rid of your cold.

    A.get    B.to get    C.getting    D.got

    5.—I usually go there by train.

    —Why not ____ by boat for a change?

    A.to try going       B.trying to go

    C.to try and go      D.try going

    答案:1.B 2.C 3.C 4.B 5.D

    71.need 等动词后接不定式或动名词均可,但语态不同

    例  The library needs____,but it'll have to wait until Sunday.

    A.cleaning         B.be cleaned

    C.clean            D.being cleaned

    此题应选A。表示“需要”的动词need,want,require 等,其后可接动名词(用主动式表示被动含义)或不定式(用被动式表示被动含义):

    这位老头需要照顾。

    a.The old man needs looking after.

    b.The old man needs to be looked after.

    你的头发需要理了。

    a.Your hair wants cutting.

    b.Your hair wants to be cut.

    这房子需要刷漆了。

    a.The house requires painting.

    b.The house requires to be painted.

    但是在其它情况下,则用主动式或被动式不能随便:

    这部电影值得看两遍。

    正:The film is worth seeing twice.

    误:The film is worth to be seen twice.

    误:The film is worth being seen twice.

    这本书很难理解。

    正:The book is difficult to understand.

    误:The book is difficult to be understood.

    72.介词but 后的动词带不带to 主要看前面 有没有do

    例     He did nothing but ____ a letter.

    A.write              B.to write

    C.writing            D.to have written

    此题应选A。一般说来,介词后接动词通常应是动名词。但是介词but(except 也一样)却比较特殊,其后接动词时,可以接不定式,并且这个不定式可以带to 也可以不带to:

    1.当其前的谓语含有实义动词do(可以是各种形式)时,其后的不定式通常不带to:

    She will do anything but play chess.她除了下棋外什么都愿干。

    He did nothing all day except watch TV.他一整天除了看电视什么也没做。

    2.当其前的谓语没有某种形式的实义动词do 时,其后的不定式通常要带to:

    They had no choice but to obey.他们别无选择只有服从。

    He wanted nothing but to stay here.

    他除了想呆在这里外,其它什么也不想。

    3.当其前含有实义动词do 但不是用作谓语时,其后的不定式带不带to 均可,但以不带to 为多见:

    There's nothing to do but(to)leave.只好离开。

    There was nothing to do but(to)wait.除了等没有其它的办法。

    4.在cannot(help)but 后习惯上接不带to 的不定式:

    I cannot(help)but admire his courage.我不得不佩服他的勇气。

    73.“have + 宾语+动词”结构详解

    例     It was cold.He had the fire ____ all night.

    A.burn               B.to Burn

    C.burning            D.to Burning

    此题应选C。有关have 的以下几个结构须注意:

    1.have +宾语+动词原形,表示“叫某人做某事”,是使役动词;有时用于否定句,表示“不能让”,

    多与won't 连用:

    I'll have her post the letter.我要叫她去寄信。

    I won't have you tell me what to do.我不能让你对我做的事指手划脚。

    2.have +宾语+现在分词。表示使某人或某物一直处于做某事的状态当中;有时用于否定句,

    表示“不允许”,一般与won't, can't 连用:

    He had the light burning all night.他让灯亮了一整夜。

    I won't have you smoking at your age.我不能让你在这个年纪就抽烟。

    3.have +宾语+过去分词。主要用法有:

    1)表示请某人做某事(主语通常不参加):

    We had the machine repaired.我们请人修了机器。

    2)表示经历或遭遇(通常是违背主语意愿的):

    I had my watch stolen.我的表被人偷去了。

    3)表示完成或解决某事(主语也可能参加):

    I've had all my mistakes corrected.

    我已把我所有的错误都改正过来了。

    4)表示“拒绝或不允许发生某事”(多与won't 连用):

    We won't have anything said against the Party.

    我们不允许有人这样攻击党。

    74.你会用“make +宾语+过去分词”吗

    例    My spoken English is poor.I can't make myself ____ .

    A.understand        B.to understant

    C.understanding      D.understood

    此题应选D。容易误选A,认为句中的make 是使役动词,其后的宾语补足语用动词原形。但是从句意上看myself 与动词understand 具有被动关系(动宾关系),所以用过去分词。如:

    He shouted aloud so that he could make his voice heard.

    他大声喊,以便让别人听到他的声音。

    You must make yourself respected.你必须要让别人尊重你。

    We should make our views known.我们应该要使我们的观点让别人知道。

    比较以下“make +宾语+动词原形”的用法:

    What made you think so?是什么使你这样想的呢?

    He made us stay to tea.他留我们吃茶点。

    You may take a horse to the water,but you can't make him drink.

    你可以把马牵到水边,但你不能让它喝水(捆绑不成夫妻)。但是,不要将以上使役用法与以下各句(make 表示“制造”)相混淆:

    He made some candles to give light.他做了些蜡烛来照明。

    He made a large box to put his books in.他做了个大箱子来装书。

    75.注意这类“动词+宾语+doing”结构

    例  The salesman scolded the girl caught ____ and let her off.

    A.to have stolen         B.to be stealing

    C.to steal               D.stealing

    此题应选D。句中的 caught stealing 是过去分词短语用作定语,修饰其前的名词 the girl,可看作是定语从句 who was caught stealing的省略形式(注意这是一个被动语态句子),其中使用的动词结构是

    catch sb doing sth(抓住某人或碰上某人在做某事)。又如:

    He caught me smoking a cigarette.他抓住我抽烟。

    The farmer caught the boy stealing his apples.

    农夫抓住这个男孩偷他的苹果。

    类似以下结构也须注意:

    1.find sb doing sth 发现某人在做某事:

    We found the girl crying under the tree.

    我们发现这个女孩在树下哭。

    2.see/hear/watch/observe sb doing sth

    看见/听见/观看/观察某人在做某事:

    He heard the girl singing in the next room.

    他听见这个姑娘在隔壁房间唱歌。

    试比较:

    I saw her enter the shop.我看见她进了商店(指全过程)。

    I saw her entering the shop.

    我看见她在进商店(指动作在进行)。

    76.在非谓语动词的否定式中否定词置于何处

    例     The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation.

    A.to eat not          B.eating not

    C.not to eat          D.not eating

    此题应选C。主要考察在非谓语动词的否定式中,否定词的位置。一般说来,非谓语动词的否定式只能在非谓词动词之前加否定词;若非谓语动词包括几个词(如是完成式、被动式等),则只能在非谓语动词的第一个词前加否定词;so as to,in order to 等结构的否定式,not只能放在不定式符号to 之前。 如:

    1.She pretended ____ me when I passed by.

    A.not to see       B.not seeing

    C.to not see       D.having not seen

    2.Tom kept quiet about the accident ____ lose his job.

    A.so not as to       B.so as not to

    C.so as to not       D.not so as to

    3.Mrs Smith warned her daughter ____ after drinking.

    A.never to drive          B.to never drive

    C.never driving          D.never drive

    4. ____ a reply,he decided to write again.

    A.Not receiving            B.Receiving not

    C.Not having received      D.Having not received

    答案:1.A 2.B 3.A 4.C

    77.此题是考察非谓语动词吗

    例      ____ many times,but the boys still couldn't under- stand it.

    A.Having told         B.Though he had been told

    C.He was told        D.Having been told

    此题应选C。容易误选A,D,考生从四个选项中初看一眼便断定此题是考察非谓语动词,这刚好落入了命题者设置的陷阱。做好此题的关键点在于注意到句中的并列连词but,因为它的存在就表明这是一个并列句,所以前面应是一个完整的句子而不能是一个非谓语动词。

    1. ____ ask the teacher if you have any questions.

    A.Doing     B.Do     C.To Do      D.Done

    2. ____ hard and you'll pass the college entrance examinations.

    A.Study    B.Studying    C.To study    D.Studied

    3. ____ down the radio——the baby's asleep in the next room.

    A.Turning   B.Turn    C.Turned    D.To turn

    4.On Saturday afternoon,Mrs Green went to the market,

    ________ some fruit and visited  her cousin.

    A.bought    B.buying    C.to Buy     D.buy

    5.She set out soon after dark ____ home an hour later.

    A.arriving             B.to arrive

    C.having arrived       D.and arrived

    答案:1.B 2.A 3.B 4.A 5.D

    78.succeed 后可接不定式或动名词吗

    例    He succeeded ____ the job.

    A.to get    B.getting   C.in getting    D.of getting

    此题应选C。表示做某事成功,succeed 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词,而应接in(doing)。如:

    We succeeded in performing the task.我们成功地完成了任务。

    I didn't succeed in my first lecture.我第一次演讲没有成功。

    He succeeded in (winning)the first prize.

    他成功地获得了一等奖。

    类似地,以下动词在通常情况下,其后既不接不定式也不接动名词。若意义上要接动词,要用“介词+ 动名词”:

    insist on 坚持 persist in 坚持,继续 dream of 梦想 concentrate on 专心于

    他坚持要同我们一起去。

    正:He insisted on going with us.

    误:He insisted going with us.

    误:He insisted to go with us.

    他梦想与科学家。

    正:He dreamed of becoming a scientist.

    误:He dreamed becoming a scientist.

    误:He dreamed to become a scientist.

    他聚精会神地研究计划。

    正:He concentrated on studying the plan.

    误:He concentrated studying the plan.

    误:He concentrated to study the plan.

    79.你知道什么叫悬垂分词吗

    例     ____ the road,a car knocked him down.

    A.Crossing                 B.Crossed

    C.When he was crossing      D.To cross

    此题应选C。其余均可能被误选。分析如下:选项B 不对,因为它是过去分词,其后不应有宾语。选项A,D 不对,因为该非谓语动词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致——构成悬垂分词。一般说来,作状语用的非谓语动词的逻辑主语应与句子主语保持一致,否则便是错句。比较:

    为了通过考试,(他)每分钟都用来学习。

    误:To pass the exam,every minute was spent in studying.

    正:To pass the exam,he spent every minute in studying.

    信读了第二次之后,意思就更清楚了。

    误:Reading the letter a second time,the meaning became  clearer.

    正:Being read a second time,the letter became clearer in  meaning.

    狗叫得厉害,所以我把它放了出去。

    误:Barking madly,I led the dog out.

    正:Barking madly,the dog was let out.

    但是,在有些特殊的结构(只有少数固定结构)中,非谓语动词可以没有逻辑主语:

    Judging from[by]what he said,he was a cheat.

    从他说的话来看,他就是个骗子。

    80.可说Yes,of,course,you could 吗

    例   —Could I use your dictionary?

    —Yes,of course you ____ .

    A.can    B.could     C.might     D.must

    此题应选A。不要受问句could 的影响而选B。用情态动词(can,could,may,might)表示许可,注意以下几点:

    1.表示请求允许(即请求别人允许自己做某事),可用can(=may),也可用could(=might)。注意:若用could(=might),并不表过去,而表现在,只是语气较委婉。

    2.表示给予允许(即自己允许别人做某事),一般只用can(=may),而不能用could,might:

    A:Can[Could,May,Might]I use your phone?

    我可以用一下你的电话吗?

    B:Yes,of course you can[may].(正)

    B:Yes,of course you could[might].(误)

    3.但是在间接引语中的过去式动词后,可用could,might

    (此时为过去式)来表示给予的允许:

    He said that I might[could]borrow his car.

    他说我可以借他的车。

    4.在过去时态中,could 可用来表示一般性的允许,但不能表示特定的允许:

    When I was at home,I could watch TV whenever I wanted to .

    我在家时,想哪时看电视就哪时看。

    I was allowed to go there yesterday.

    昨天允许我去了那儿。(特定允许——不能用could)

    81.你知道was able to 与could 的区别吗

    例     The fire spread through the hotel quickly but everyone ____get out.

    A.had to    B.would    C.could     D.was able to

    此题应选 D。容易误选 C(could)。这里主要涉及 could 与was able to 的用法和区别:

    1.表示过去一般性能力时(即某人想干什么就能干什么的能力),两者都可用:

    He could[was able to]run very fast when he was a boy.

    他小时候跑得很快。

    2.表示过去特定的能力(即某人在某一具体场合做某事的能力,往往暗示经过努力才具备的能力),通常用 was(were)able to,也可用managed to do sth 或 succeeded in doing sth,但是不能用could:

    他学习很努力,所以考试及了格。

    正:He worked very hard and was able to[managed to]pass his examination.

    误:He worked very hard and could pass his his examination.正因为此原因,所以上面一题的答案用 was able to get out, 而不用 could get out,因为此题谈及的是一种特定场合的具体能力。但值得注意的是,以上用法只适合于肯定句,若在否定句中,则可用 couldn't 代替 wasn't[weren't]able to:

    He worked hard but wasn't able to[couldn't]pass the exam.

    他学习很努力,但考试却未能及格。

    82.表推测的can/could 有何区别

    例    —Do you believe what he says?

    —Yes,it ____ be true.

    A.can    B.could    C.need    D.has to

    此题应选B。该题容易误选A。下面谈谈can,could 表示推测的有关用法:

    1.表示理论上的可能性(即从理论上分析是可能的,但实际未必会发生),可用can(表现在)或could(表过去):

    He is in poor health.He can be ill at any time.

    他身体不好,随时都可能会生病。

    Even experts can make mistakes.即使是专家也可能会出差错。

    My mother could be very unpleasant at times.

    我母亲有时候会让人非常不愉快。

    2.表示现实可能性,这包含两个方面的含义:一是指将来可能性,一是指现在的可能性,在这两种用法中,通常都不用can,但可用 could(可以指现在,相当于 may/might):

    今年夏天我们可能要去日本。(将来可能性)

    正:We could[may,might]go to Japan this summer.

    误:We can go to Japan this summer.

    你可能是对的,但我不认为你对。(现在可能性)

    正:You could[may,might]be right,but I don't think you are.

    误:You can be right,but I don't think you are.

    有时也用can 来表示现在的可能性,但那通常只限于否定句或疑问

    句中:It can't be true.那不可能是真的。

    What can he possibly want?他可能会想要什么呢?

    83.你会用“can(could) +have +过去分词”吗

    例    I can't find him anywhere;he ____ home.

    A.can go         B.can have gone

    C.could go       D.could have gone

    此题应选D。首先,can 一般不用于肯定的推测用法中,从而排除A,B;另一方面,从句意上看,这应该是对过去发生动作的推测,所以只能用D。

    can[could] +have +pp 的用法要注意:

    1.can +have +pp 主要用于否定句或疑问句:

    He can't have said so.他不可能这样说过。

    Where can he have gone?他会上哪儿去了呢?

    2.could +have +pp 主要用于:

    1)表示对过去的推测,可用于肯定句、否定句或疑问句,其意为“可能

    (已经)”:

    He could have forgotten that.他可能把那事忘了。

    Where could he have gone on such a night?

    在那样一个晚上他会到什么地方去了呢?

    2)表示过去没有实现的可能性(即某事本来可以发生,但却没有发生),意为“本来可以”:

    You could have given her some help.你本来可以给她些帮助的。

    3)用来委婉地责备某人过去应该做某事而没有去做,意为“本来应该”:

    You could have come here a little earlier.你本来应该来早点的。

    4)表示“差点儿就要”:

    I could have died laughing.我差点儿笑死了。

    84.你会用“may(might) +have +过去分词”吗

    例     You are late again.You ____ earlier.

    A.may come           B.may have come

    C.might come          D.might have come

    此题应选D。首先,从句意上看,此句谈论的应该是过去的事,所以只能用“情态动词 +动词完成式”这样的结构,从而排除A,C;另一方面,may +have +pp 通常只表示推测而不表示责备,而 might +have  +pp则既可以表推测也可以表责备,而此句的语境刚好是一种责备的语气(你又迟到了,你本来可以来早的),所以只能选D。

    1.对现在或将来的推测用“may +动词原形”;对过去的推测则用

    “may +have +pp”(主要用于肯定或否定句):

    It may rain tomorrow.明天可能下雨。

    He may have said so.他也许这样说过。

    They may not have known it before.他们以前可能不知道此事。

    2.若是推测正在进行的动作也可用 may +be +doing:

    He may be waiting for us.他也许在等我们。

    表示推测的may 一般都可以用might 代之(以上各例中表推测的may均可换为might,只是语气不那么肯定。但是以下两种情况通常要用might,而不用may:

    1.表示说话者对没有做某事进行责备:

    You might have helped her.你本来可以帮她的!

    2.用于疑问句:

    Might this be true?这可能是真的吗?

    Might he have been waiting long?他可能已等了很久吗?
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:41 | 显示全部楼层 6#
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (85---101)
    85.may not 何时表示“可能不”,何时表示“不可以”

    例   He may not have known this,but you may not tell him about it.

    A:他也许还不知道此事,但你不可以告诉他。

    B:他不可能知道此事,但你可以不告诉他。

    C:他可以不知道此事,但你不可以告诉他。

    D:他也许还不知道此事,但你可以不告诉他。

    此题应选A。这里主要涉及 may not 的正确理解问题:

    may 有两个主要用法:一是表示允许,二是表示推测。

    1.表示允许,其意为“可以”,其否定式may not 意为“不可以”,相当于 must not(不可以,不准,不允许):

    You may not smoke here.此处不准抽烟。

    Dogs may not be taken into these carriages.狗不可带进这些车厢。

    —May I use your toothbrush?我可以用你的牙刷吗?

    —No,you may not.不行。

    2.表示推测,其意为“可能”,其否定式may not,意为“可能不”:

    He may not be right.他可能不对。

    She may not be there.她可能不在那儿。

    He may not have seen the film.他可能还没有看过这部电影。

    They may not have known it beforehand.他们事先可能不知道。

    表示推测时,要表示“不可能”,要用can't:

    It can't be true.这不可能是真的。

    He can't have read the book,他不可能读过此书。

    86.如何回答以must,may,need.等开头的疑问句

    例     —Must I do it at once?

    —No,you ____ .

    A.mustn't     B.needn't    C.can't    D.don't

    此题应选B。一般说来,以must 引出的一般疑问句,其否定回答通常是用 needn't(=don't have to),这与其说是一个语法问题,不如说是一个语境或上下文是否通顺的问题。

    注意以下各组问答句,并注意体会其汉语译文:

    1.—Must I come before dawn?我必须天亮前来吗?

    —Yes,you must.是的,必须天亮前来。

    —No,you needn't.不必天亮前就来。

    —No,you don't have to.不必天亮前就来。

    2.—May I smoke in the room?我可以在这个房间抽烟吗?

    —Yes,you may.当然可以。

    —Of course you may[can].当然可以。

    —No,you may not[mustn't,can't].不行。(语气较生硬)

    —You'd better not[Better not].最好不要抽。

    —I'd rather you didn't.还是不抽的好。

    —Please don't.请不要抽。

    3.—Need I finish it today?我必须今天完成它吗?

    —Yes,you must[have to,should].是的,今天必须完成它。

    (肯定回答不能用Yes,you need,因为情态动词need 只用于否定句或疑问句,不用于肯定句)

    —No,you needn't.不必今天就完成它。

    —No,you don't have to.不必今天就完成它。

    87.must 表示推测结构种种

    例    Where is my pen?I ____ it.

    A.might lose      B.need have lost

    C.must lose        D.must have lost

    此题应选D。既然现在找不到钢笔,说明丢失钢笔应该发生在过去,所以这里应该用“情态动词 +动词的完成式”来表示推测,从而排除A,C。而选项B 也不妥当,因为作为情态动词的need 通常只用于否定句或疑问句,而不用于肯定句。

    must 表示推测注意以下用法:

    1.对现在情况的推测,后接动词原形(多为状态动词):

    He must be wrong.他一定是错了。

    He must have a lot of money.他一定有很多钱。

    She must know the man.她一定认识这个人。

    He must be from the south.他一定是从南方来的。

    表示动作正在进行,则后接动词的进行式:

    Mr Smith must be waiting for us.史密斯先生一定在等我们。

    She must be worrying about our safety.

    他一定在为我们的安全担心。

    2.表示对已经发生的事情作推测,其后接动词的完成式:

    He must have arrived by now.到现在他一定到了。

    What?Two o'clock?Your watch must have stopped.

    什么?还是两点?你的表一定是停了。

    He must have read the letter.他一定读过这封信。

    有时后接动词完成进行式,表示“一定(一直)在”:

    Someone must have been using it.The cover is off.

    准是一直有人在用它,盖子都取下来了。

    88.must 与have to 用法区别

    例  I haven't got enough money to buy a ticket,so I ____ go home  on foot.

    A.must    B.have to    C.ought to    D.may

    此题应选B。从句意上看,只能选A,B。关于must 和have to 表示“必须”时的区别,

    注意以下几点:

    1.强调重点不同:must 强调主观;而 have to 强调客观:

    You must go now(I want you to go now).你必须现在就走

    (有“我要你现在走”之意)。

    If I buy that car,I'll have to borrow some money.

    如果我要买那辆汽车,我得借些钱。

    2.时态形式不同:一般说来,must 只有现在时一种形式(在宾语从句中可表示过去),

    而have to 则有多种时态形式:

    He said(that)she must go with me.他说她一定要同我一起去。

    She had to go there on foot yesterday.

    昨天她不得不步行去那儿。

    He has had to buy a car.他不得不买了辆小汽车。

    3.have to 可以有分词、动名词、不定式等非谓语形式,而 must则没有这些形式:

    He only saw her in the evening,having to be away all day.

    他因整天得外出,所以只能晚上见她。

    I regret to have to trouble you again.

    我很抱歉不得不再麻烦你一次。

    4.否定式的意义不同:must 的否定式mustn't 意为“不准”、“不允许”;

    而 have to 的否定式 don't have to 意为“不必”=needn't)。

    89.你知道need 的这些用法吗

    例    I got up early,but I ____ so,because I had no work to do that  morning.

    A.needn't do            B.needn't have done

    C.didn't need do          D.didn't need to do

    此题应选B。为了弄清此题,首先我们要知道need 有情态动词和实义动词两种用法。一般说来,这两种用法在意思上没有什么差别,只是用法差别较大:

    他必须去那儿吗?

    正:Need he go there?(need 为情态动词)

    正:Does he need to go there?(need 为实义动词)

    但有时候两种用法在意思上也有较大差别:

    1.a.He needn't be told.没有必要告诉他。

    b.He doesn't need to be told.不需要告诉他了。(即:他已知道了)

    2.didn't need to do/needn't have done:

    前者表示因为没有做某事的必要,所以没有去做;

    后者表示某事已经做了,但后来觉得没有必要去做,含有责备或遗憾之味:

    I didn't need to get up early this morning,so I stayed in bed  until 9 am.

    今天早上我不必早起,所以我一直睡到上午9 点才起床。

    That computer was expensive,and what's more,I didn't need

    to buy such a good one.

    那台电脑很贵,况且我也没有必要买那样好一台电脑。

    I was the first to get there.I needn't have gone there so early.

    我是第一个到那儿的人,我本来不必去那么早的。

    90.情态动词后何时接一般式,何时接完成式

    例     The plant is dead.I ____ _it more water.

    A.should give         B.should have given

    C.must give            D.must have given

    此题应选B。从句意上看,植物既然已死了,那么后句的意思应该是:本来应该多浇水,但却没有多浇水(这是一种遗憾),所以只能选B。谈论现在的情况,情态动词后接动词原形;谈论已经发生的情况或本来应该发生但却没有发生的情况等,情态动词后要接动词的完成式。

    请做以下各题:

    1.Jenny ____ have kept her word.I wonder why she changed her  mind.

    A.must    B.should    C.need    D.would

    2.We ____ last night,but we went to the concert instead.

    A.must have studied            B.might study

    C.should have studied          D.would study

    3.He should not ____ me your secret,but he meant no harm.

    A.have told             B.tell

    C.be telling             D.having told

    4.I told Sally how to get here,but perhaps I ____ it out for  her.

    A.had to write               B.must have written

    C.should have written        D.ought to write

    答案:1.B 2.C 3.A 4.C

    91.与现在事实相反的虚拟语气

    例     If he was here,he ____ us how to do it.

    A.told    B.would tell   C . had told    D.had told

    此题应选B。该题考察与现在事实相反的虚拟语气;此时条件从句的谓语动词用过去式,主句的谓语则要用would(should, could,might)+动词原形:

    If there were no subjunctive mood,English would be much easier.

    要是没有虚拟语气,英语就会容易得多了。

    If I knew his telephone number,I would ring him up.

    我要是知道他的电话号码,我就给他打电话了。

    在虚拟条件句中,动词be 的过去式通常用were(不管是单数还是复数),

    但在现代英语中,单数情况也可以用was:

    We could ask him if he were[was]here.

    他要是在这里,我们就可以问问他了。

    但是在某些表达(If I were you,as it were 等)中,

    be 只用were这一形式:

    If I were you,I should go and see the doctor at once.

    假若我是你,我会马上去看医生。

    The sky is covered,as it were,with a black curtain.

    天空好像是被黑幕遮住了似的。

    有时虚拟条件句也可能用could,might 等,那多半是因为语义的需要:

    If he could help you,he would help you.

    要是他能够帮助你的话,他会帮助你的。

    92.与过去事实相反的虚拟语气

    例   —If he ____ ,he ____ that food.

    —Lucykily he was sent to the hospital immediately.

    A.was warned,would not take

    B.had been warned,would not have taken

    C.would be warned,had not taken

    D.would have been warned,had not taken

    此题应选B。该题考察与过去事实相反的虚拟语气;此时条件从句的谓语用had + 过去分词,主句的谓语用would(should, could,might)+have +过去分词:

    1.If she had worked harder,she ____ .

    A.would succeed      B.had succeeded

    C.should succeed      D.would have succeeded

    2.If my lawyer ____ here last Saturday,he ____ me from going.

    A.had been,would have prevented

    B.had been,would prevent

    C.were,would

    D.were,would have prevented

    3.I didn't see your sister at the meeting.If she ____ , she would have met my brother.

    A.has come       B.did come

    C.came           D.had come

    4.You didn't let me drive.If we ____ in turn,you ____ sotired.

    A.drove,didn't get           

    B.drove,wouldn't get

    C.were driving,wouldn't get   

    D.had driven,wouldn't have got

    答案:1.D 2.A 3.D 4.D

    93.与将来事实相反的虚拟语气

    例   If we ____ 200 years old,we ____ everything.

    A.were to be,could change

    B.had been,changed

    C.were,would have changed

    D.should be,changed

    此题应选A。该题考察与将来事实相反的虚拟语气,此时的主句谓语通常用would(should,could,might) +动词原形,而从句谓语可能有以下几种情况:

    1.从句谓语用过去式:

    If your father knew this,he would be angry.

    要是你父亲知道了,他会生气的。

    If it rained tomorrow,the sports meet would be put off.

    要是明天下雨,运动会就推迟。

    2.从句谓语用 should +动词原形(通常指可能性极小的事情,一般译为“万一”):

    If it should rain,the crops would be saved.

    要是有雨,这庄稼还有救。

    此类句型的主句谓语有时可以用祈使句甚至将来时态:

    If it should rain tomorrow,don't expect me.

    万一明天下雨,就不要等我了。

    If I should be free tomorrow,I will come.

    万一我明天有空,我就来。

    3.从句谓语用 were to +动词原形(通常指可能性极小或近乎不可能,有时指出乎意料):

    If the sun were to rise in the west,my love for you would not change.

    即使太阳从西边出,我对你的爱也不会变。

    94.你会正确使用虚拟语气的倒装形式吗

    例    ____ your address,I woulu have written to you.

    A.Did I know           B.Were I to know

    C.Had I known          D.If I should know

    此题应选C。这是虚拟语气的倒装形式。当虚拟条件句中含有 were,had,should,could 等动词时,可以将if 省略,然后将were,had,should,could 等词移至句首:

    1.If he should fail,he would kill himself.

    →Should he fail,he would kill himself.万一失败,他就会自杀。

    2.If I were you,I would do it at once.

    →Were I you,I would do it at once.假若我是你,我就会马上做。

    3.If I could do it,I would.

    →Could I do it,I would.要是我能做此事,我一定会做。

    4.If he had you yesterday,he would have asked you about it.

    →Had he seen you yesterday,he would have asked you about it.

    他昨天要是看到了你,他就会问你这事了。

    顺便说一句,以上移至句首的had 不一定是助动词,如果是实义动词也可倒装:

    If he had money,he would buy a car.

    →Had he money,he would buy a car.他要是有钱,他就会买一辆小车。

    95.哪些动词接的宾语从句通常要用虚拟语气

    例      The guard at the gate insisted that everyone ____ the rules.

    A.obeys           B.obey

    C.will obey         D.would obey

    此题应选B。一般说来,在一些表示坚持(insist),命令(order,command),建议(suggest,advise),要求(require,demand) 等动词之后的宾语从句中,谓语一般要用“should +动词原形(其中的should 在美国英语中常省略,但是引导从句的that 通常不省略):

    He ordered that the medicine(should) be sent by a special plane.

    他命令用专机来运送药品。

    I demanded that I(should)be allowed to call my lawyer.

    我要求允许我找我的律师。

    注意insist 和suggest 的用法要分两种情况:

    1.insist 表示“坚持要”、“一定要”,从句多指尚未实现的想法,谓语通常用虚拟语气(should +v);表示“坚持说”、“坚持认为”,从句所指的多为已经发生的事或已存在的状态,谓语用陈述语气:

    I insisted that he(should)go.我坚持要他去。

    I insisted that he was wrong.我坚持认为他错了。

    2.suggest 表示“建议”,其后接that 从句,一般要用虚拟语气;

    若表示“暗示”、“表明”,则其后所接that 从句要用陈述语气:

    She suggested that we(should)leave early.她建议我们早点动身。

    Her expression suggested that she was angry.她的表情表明她生气了。

    96.I wish 后从句用虚拟语气的三种形式

    例   I wish you ____ him my telephone number,but you did.

    A.didn't give            B.hadn't given

    C.wouldn't give          D.shouldn't give

    此题应选B。I wish 后接宾语从句时,谓语有三种可能:

    1.表示与现在事实相反的愿望,用过去时:

    I wish I were a teacher.我要是一位老师就好了。

    I wish I remembered her address.我要是记得她的地址就好了。

    2.表示与过去事实相反的愿望,用过去完成时:

    How I wish I had seen her off at the station,but I was too busy.

    我要是去车站送过她就好了,但我太忙了。

    3.表示与将来事实相反的愿望,用could/would +/might + 动词原形:

    I wish he would come at once.我真希望他马上来。

    类似地,以下结构也与wish 情况类似(从句分三种情况):

    1.If only(但愿):用法与含义均与I wish 相似,

    以上各例中的I wish 均可用If only 代之,含义大致相同。

    2.as if/though(好像):

    She loves the child as if he were her own.

    她疼爱这孩子,就像是她自己的孩子一样。(与现在事实相反)

    He talks as if he had been there many times.

    他说起话来好像是去过那儿多次似的。(与过去事实相反)

    He speaks as if he would die soon.

    听他说话那语气好像不久就要死似的。(与将来事实相反)

    97.你知道 I would rather 后接从句时谓语用何形式吗

    例      —Shall I open the window?

    —I'd rather you ____ .

    A.can't     B.won't    C.didn't     D.hadn't

    此题应选 C。关于would rather 后从句谓语的形式,

    注意以下几点:

    1.指现在或将来用一般过去时:

    Don't come today.I'd rather you came tomorrow.

    你不要今天来,我宁愿你明天来。

    —Can I smoke here?我可以在这里抽烟吗?

    —Oh,I'd rather you didn't.哦,你最好别抽。

    2.指过去用过去完成时:

    I'd rather I hadn't met her at the party.

    我真希望在晚会上没有见到她。

    I'd rather he hadn't told me about it.

    我宁愿他没有告诉我这事还好些。

    在谈到过去的情况时,I'd rather 与 I wish,If only 的意思和用法很接近,有时可换用;

    当时我要是没有给他打电话就好了。

    正:I'd rather I hadn't telephoned him.

    正:I wish I hadn't telephoned him.

    正:If only I hadn't telephoned him.

    有时would rather 后的从句谓语也可用其它时态形式(比如在谈到现在情况时有时可用现在时态:I'd rather you go home now),但是这些用法在现代英语中很少见,建议考生在应试时要避免。

    98.It's time 后的从句谓语用何形式

    例     It's time the child ____ to bed.

    A.goes     B.going   C.went    D.to go

    此题应选 C。关于 It's time + that 从句,注意以下几点:

    1.从句谓语通常用过去时态或 should + 动词原形:

    It's time we started.我们该动身了。

    It is time that you left here.你该离开这儿了。

    It's time you studied hard.你该努力学习了。

    有时也用 should + 动词原形或甩过去进行时,有时甚至将should省略

    (即只用动词原形,为非正式的美国口语):

    我们该走了。

    正:It is time we left.(常见)

    正:It is time we should leave.(可用)

    正:It is time we were leaving.(可用)

    正:It is time we leave.(少见,非正式美国口语)

    2.其它几点注意处:

    1)其中的 It is 有时根据情况也可改为 It was,其后的时态不受影响:

    你该上床睡觉了。

    正:It is time you went to bed.(指现在而言)

    正:It was time you went to bed.(指过去而言)

    2)time 前可以用high,about 等修饰。

    It is high time you told her the truth.你该把真相告诉她了。

    It is about time that I wrote her a letter.我该给她写封信了。

    99.什么是含蓄虚拟语气

    例       He studied hard,otherwise he ____ so hard a test.

    A.didn't pass         B.couldn't pass

    C.hadn't passed       D.couldn't have passed

    此题应选D。其中的otherwise 含蓄地暗示一种虚拟条件,相当于if he hadn't studied hard。

    英语中用某种词汇或语法手段含蓄地暗示虚拟条件的方式比较多,

    下面略举几例,供考生参考:

    With more money [If I had more money],I could do it better.

    要是我有更多的钱,我会做得更好。

    But for his help [if it were not for his help],we couldn't get over the difficulties.

    要是没有他的帮助,我们就无法克服这些困难。

    I'm really busy,or[if I weren't so busy,] I would certainly go with you.

    我确实太忙了,要不然我一定跟你们一块儿去。

    Meeting [If we had met] anywhere else , we couldn't have recognized each other.

    要是在别处见面,我们俩彼此是不会认出来的。

    To hear him speak English [If one were to hear him speak English],one would think him an Englishman.

    你要是听他说英语,一定会认为他是一个英国人。

    An honest man would not say this[If he were an honest man,he would not say this].

    一个诚实的人就不会说这样的话。

    100.什么是错综时间虚拟语气

    例  If you ____ the doctor's advice,you ____ quite well now.

    A.took,would be          B.had taken,had been

    C.should take,were       D.had taken,would be

    此题应选D。从句意上看,条件从句的谓语显然发生在过去,而主句的谓语显然是现在,也就是说从句表示的是与过去事实相反的假设(用过去完成时),而主句表示的是与现在事实相反的假设(用 would + 动词原形)。英语中像这种主从句时间不一致的虚拟条件句称为错综时间条件句。又如:

    If we hadn't got everything ready by now,we should be

    Having a terrible time tomorrow.

    如果现在还没有把一切准备好,明天情况就糟了。

    If we hadn't been working hard in the past few years,

    things wouldn't be going so smoothly.

    要是过去几年没有作艰苦努力,现在的一切就不会进行得这样顺利了。

    If you had studied hard last year,you would be a college student now.

    你要是去年学习努力的话,你现在就是大学生了。

    If the weather had been more favorable,the crops would be growing.still better.

    如果过去天气好一些,现在的庄稼还会长得更好。

    If he were alive now,he might have grown into a handsome young person.

    要是他现在还活着的话,他会已长成一个英俊的小伙子了。

    101.连系动词有被动语态吗

    例    Her forehead ____ hot.I'm afraid she is ill.

    A.is feeling      B.feels

    C.is felt          D.has been felt

    此题应选B。容易误选C,因为从意义上看,“前额”应该是“被摸”,

    所以不少考生误入C 的陷阱。

    英语中look(看起来),sound(听起来),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(摸起来)等表示感官的连系动词,它们在意义上是被动的,但在形式上却不能是被动的(因为连系动词是不及物动词,不可能有被动形式)。同时,以上连系动词在表示以上意义时,通常也不用于进行时态(除look 外)。

    1.The picture ____ beautiful.

    A.is looked         B.has looked

    C.will be looked     D.looks

    2.The soup ____ very nice.

    A.smells       B.is smelt

    C.is smelling    D.smells to be

    3.As is known to us all,glass ____ smooth.

    A.feels   B.is felt    C.is feeling   D.will feel

    若以上动词不是用作连系动词,而是用作实义动词;或者即使是用作连系动词,而不表示以上意思,则可用进行时态:

    Are you feeling any better?你感到好些了吗?

    He was tasting the pudding.他在尝布丁。

    答案:1.D 2.A 3.A
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:42 | 显示全部楼层 7#
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (102---117)


    102.连系动词后可以接to be 吗

    例      The story sounds ____ .

    A.to be true        B.as true

    C.being true       D.true

    此题应选D。该题很容易误选A。这里涉及连系动词后是否接to be的题:

    1.在seem,appear,prove,continue 等连系动词以及用作连系动词的短语tum out 等之后,可以接to be,但可省略:

    He seems(to be) sad.他似乎很伤心。

    He appears(to be) angry.他似乎生气了。

    The news tumed out[proved](to be)false.那消息结果是假的。

    2.在feel,smell,sound,taste 等连系动词后不接to be:

    这汤味道不错。

    正:The soup tastes nice.

    误:The soup tastes to be nice.

    在look(看起来)之后是否接to be,语法专家意见不一,但总的说来,以不用为佳。

    3.在表语形容词前的to be 通常不省略:

    He seems[appears]to be asleep.他似乎睡着了。

    He seemed to be awake when I went into his room.

    我进屋时,他似乎醒了。

    He doesn't seem to be afraid of it.他似乎不怕它。

    He seems quite sure of it.他似乎对此很有把握。

    She appeared to be very fond of the book.

    她似乎很喜欢这本书。

    103.要分清是连系动词还是实义动词

    例    a.He looks ____ .

    b.He looked ____ at his broken car.

    A.sad,sad        B.sadly,sadly

    C.sad,sadly       D.sadly,sad

    此题应选C。这里要分清look 用作实义动词和连系动词的两种不同用法。从句意和结构上看:a 句中的look 是连系动词(句意为:他看起来很伤心),所以此句用形容词sad 作表语。b 句中的look 是实义动词(句意为:他伤心地看着他的破汽车;另外句子中的介词at 也给我们一定的提示),所以此句用副词sadly 作状语。

    以下各例也涉及实义动词和连系动词的两种用法:

    1.a.Hearing this,she felt ____ .

    b.I felt ____ we should take some action.

    A.happy,strong          B.happily,strongly

    C.happy,strongly         D.happily,strong

    2.a.The dog is too dirty and smells ____ .

    b.The dog can't be used for hunting,for he smells ____ .

    A.bad,bad           B.badly,badly

    C.bad,badly          D.badly,bad

    3. a.He worked very hard,and his dream came ____ at last。

    b.The boy came ____ to the shop with the money his mother gave him.

    A.true,happy         B.truly,happily

    C.truly,happy         D.true,happily

    答案:1.C 2.C 3.D

    104.连系动词come,go 有何差别

    例       It was a pity that he ____ blind,but to the joy of his family,

    his dream of becoming a musician ____ true at last.

    A.came,came          B.went,went

    C.came,went           D. went,came

    此题应选D。句中的go,come 都是连系动词,两者在用法上应注意:

    1.两者用作连系动词,都可表示事物的变化。一般说来,go 主要用于“坏”的变化,而come 主要用于“好”的变化:

    These apples have gone bad.这些苹果变坏了。

    Something has gone wrong with the radio.

    这部收音机什么地方出毛病了。

    Her mother has gone mad.她母亲疯了。

    Things will come right.一切都会顺利的。

    My dream has come true.我的梦想实现了。

    2.表示像人的生理变化,通常用go:go blind 变瞎 go deaf 变聋 go grey 两鬓渐白 go bald 变秃但是注意:go 一般不与 old,tired,ill 等连用。

    3.在表示颜色方面的变化时,通常用go(有时也用turn,但语气更正式):

    Leaves go[turn]brown in autumn.秋季树叶变黄。

    She went[turned]pale at the news.她听到这个消息脸色变得苍白。

    His hair was going[turning]grey.他的头发慢慢地变白了。

    105.并列主语受every,each 修饰,谓语用单数还是复数

    例     Every boy and girl ____ the film.

    Each boy and girl ____ the film.

    A.likes,likes           B.like,like

    C.likes,like            D.like,likes

    此题应选A。该题容易误选B,认为主语部分含有boy 和girl 两部分,应该用复数。

    其实当两个并列主语受到each,every,no 等词修饰时,其谓语通常要用单数:

    Each boy and(each)girl was in white.

    每个男孩和女孩都穿着白衣服。

    Every man and woman was interested in it.

    每一个男人和女人都对此感兴趣。

    Each book and each paper was in proper place.

    每本书和每张报纸都摆放得井井有条。

    Every man and(every) woman in the village knows this.

    这个村子里的男男女女都知道这事。

    Every boy and every girl is given an apple.

    每个男孩和每个女孩都被发给一个苹果。

    No teacher and(no)student was present.

    没有一个老师和学生出席。

    He listened carefully,but no sound and no voice was heard.

    他仔细地听,但是没听到一点声音。

    106.each 用作主语同位语,谓语用单数还是复数

    例   a.Each student ____ a dictionary.

    b.The students each ____ a dictionary.

    A.have,have        B.have,has

    C.has,have         D.has,has

    此题应选C。a 句的谓语用单数,这很显然。b 句的谓语要用复数,这点考生很容易出错。其实a,b 两句的意思是一样的(=每个学生都有一本字典),但是注意:b 句真正的主语是the stu-dents,其后的each是主语的同位语,由于谓语是与主语保持一致(而不是与其同位语保持一致),所以此句要选have。

    请看以下例句:

    We each have a computer.

    我们每人都有一台电脑。

    They each have read the book.

    他们每个人都读过这本书。

    The young people each carry a big bag.

    这些年轻人个个背着一个大袋子。

    My brother and I each have a car.

    我和我兄弟每人都有一辆小汽车。

    顺便说一句,若用each of 作主语,其谓语通常是用单数,

    但在口语或非正式英语中也可用复数

    (不如用单数常见):

    Each of the boys was[were]deeply frightened.

    男孩子们个个都惊恐万分。

    Each of these books was[were]interesting.

    这些书当中每一本都很有趣。

    Each of the students has his[have their]own books.

    每个学生都有自己的书。

    107.谓语应该跟主语一致还是跟表语一致

    例     We Chinese ____ a hard-working people.

    A.is     B.are     C.is Being      D . are  Being

    此题应选B。这里考生要注意的是:我们通常说的是主谓一致(即谓语与主语保持一致),而不是表谓一致(即不是谓语与表语一致),本题意为:我们中国人是一个勤劳的民族。

    注意以下类似例子:

    These two dictionaries are a present for my best friend Jim.

    这两本词典是我送给我最好朋友吉姆的礼物。

    The planets were the object of his study.

    这些行星是他研究的目标。

    The most important thing I need is books.

    我需要的最重要的东西是书。

    The country's leading export is watches.

    这个国家的主输出品是手表。

    The best part of the meal is the coffee and cookies.

    这餐饭最好的部分是咖啡和饼干。

    但是有些主语由于本身具有单数和复数两种可能,它的谓语到底用单数还是复数,要看具体的语境(多数情况是看其后面词语的单复数):

    1.a.Who is your brother?

    谁是你的兄弟?

    b.Who are your brothers?

    哪些是你的兄弟?

    2.a.What he said is quite correct.

    他所说的完全正确。

    b.What he left me are only a few old books.

    他给我留下的只是几本旧书。

    108.集合名词作主语,谓语的数如何确定

    例  1.His family ____ a small one.

    2.His family ____fat and short.

    A.is,is   B.are,are    C.is,are   D.are,is

    此题应选C。family 是一个集合名词,具有单数(侧重指整体)和复数(侧重指个体)两种可能。类似这种用法的词主要的有:

    team(队,队员),class(班,班上的全体学生),

    crowd(人群),govemment(政府),crew(乘务员),

    committee(委员会,委员们),audience(听众)等:

    1.a.This class consists of 45 students.Mr Green teaches it.

    这个班45 个学生,由格林先生教。

    b.This class are all diligent.Mr Green teaches them.

    这个班的学生都很用功,由格林先生教。

    2.a.The team is the best in the league.

    这个队在联赛中打得最好。

    b.The football team are having baths.

    足球队队员们在洗澡。

    3.a.It was late,but the audience was increasing.

    时间很迟了,但听众人数却在增加。

    b.The audience were all moved to tears.

    听众都感动得流了泪。

    但是并不是所有的集合名词都具有以上两种用法:

    1.有的集合名词总是用作单数(不可数):clothing 衣服,poetry 诗歌,baggage/luggage 行李,furniture 家俱,

    machinery 机械,scenery 景色,jewellery 珠宝等

    2.有的集合名词总是表示复数意义(但不用复数形式):

    people 人,police 警察,cattle 牲口等.

    109.这类结构的谓语应与哪个主语保持一致

    例     A library with five thousand books ____ to the nation as a gift.

    A.is offered         B.has offered

    C.are offered       D.have offered

    此题应选A。用连词and 连接的两个并列主语,其谓语要用复数,但是若主语跟有with,like,but,except,besides,includ-ing,together with,along with,as well as,more than,no less than,rather than 等连接的另一个名词,其谓语通常要与前面一个主语保持一致:

    1.Nobody but Betty and Mary ____ late for class yesterday.

    A.was   B.were   C.has been   D.have been

    2.A woman with some children ____ soon.

    A.is coming         B.are coming

    C.has come         D.have come

    3.No one except my parents ____ anything about this。

    A.know    B.knows    C.is known    D.are known

    4.The teacher as well as the students ____ the book already.

    A.has read       B.have read

    C.are reading     D.is reading

    5.All but one ____ in the accident.

    A.was killed       B.were killed

    C.will be killed     D.are killed

    答案:1.A 2.A 3.B 4.A 5.B

    110.这类并列主语中谓语应与哪个保持一致

    例    a.You or he ____ to blame.

        b. ____ you or he to blame?

       A.is,is         B.are,Are

          C.is,Are        D. are,is

    此题应选C。在通常情况下,两个并列主语由or,either…or,neither…nor,not...but,not only…but(also)等连接时,其谓语通常与第二个主语(即临近的一个主语)保持一致:

    1.One or two days ____ enough to see the city.

    A.is      B.are     C.am     D.be

    2.Neither my wife nor I myself ____ able to persuade my daughter to change her mind.

    A.is      B.are     C.am     D.be

    3.Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one  examination after another.

    A.is      B.are     C.am     D.be

    4.Not the teacher,but the students ____ looking forward to seeing the film.

    A.is      B.are     C.am     D.be

    注意在疑问句中则通常与第一个主语(即临近的一个主语)

    保持一致:

    a.You or he is to blame.你或他有一人要受责备。

    b.Are you or he to blame?受责备的是你还是他?

    顺便说一句,在现代英语中用 neither?nor,either?or 等连接主语时也可一律用复数(但考生在应试时应避免)。

    答案:1.B 2.C 3.B 4.B

    111.这类结构中谓语的数取决于形式还是意义

    例    a.More than one boy ____ read the story.

    b.More boys than one ____ read the story.

    A.have,have        B.has,has

    C.have,has         D.has,have

    此题应选D。该题很容易误选A,认为既然more than one 意为“不只一个”(=多个),那么其谓语就应该用复数。其实more than one 用作主语时,谓语通常要用单数(要从形式一致来考虑)。more than one用作主语时,要注意以下两个结构:

    a.“more than one + 单数名词”用作主语,其谓语通常用单数(即从形式考虑)

    b.“more +复数名词 +than one”用作主语,其谓语通常要用复数也就是说,以上结构中名词的数决定其后动词的数。

    不只一个学生受到惩罚。

    正:More than one student was punished.

    正:More students than one were punished。

    类似以上用法的还有:

    a.many a +单数名词(意为:许多),用作主语,谓语用单数(即从形式一致考虑)

    b.many + 复数名词(意为:许多),用作主语,谓语要用复数也就是说,以上结构中名词的数决定其后动词的数。

    很多小孩在那儿玩。

    正:Many a child was playing there.

    正:Many children were playing there.

    112.the number of/a number of 与主谓一致

    例  The number of people invited to the party ____ fifty,but

    a number of them ____absent for different reasons.

    A.were,was       B.was,was

    C.was,were       D.were,were

    此题应选C。注意以下两个结构:

    1.“the number of +复数名词”,指数量的总和,若用作主语,其谓语用单数:

    The number of people present was much greater than we expected.

    到场人数大大超出我们的意料。

    The number of students is 4000.学生人数为 4000。

    2.“a number of +复数名词”,意为“许多”(= a lot of),若用作主语,其谓语用复数:

    A number of people were absent from the meeting.许多人开会缺席。

    A number of bottles were broken.许多瓶子都被摔破了。

    类似的有:

    a.the variety of +复数名词→用作主语,谓语用单数

    b.a variety of +复数名词→用作主语,谓语用复数

    The variety of his books is astonishing.他的藏书的品种多得令人吃惊。

    The variety of goods in this shop is rich.这家商店的品种丰富。

    A variety of books have been published.已出版了各种各样的书。

    113.the rest(of)等作主语,谓语的数取决于什么

    例   a.The rest of the boys ____ watching TV.

    b.The rest of the money ____ stolen.

    A.were,were       B.was,were

    C.were,was        D.was,was

    此题应选C。all,most,some,half,percent,the rest 等词语后接介词of 再接名词用作主语时,若该名词为可数名词的复数形式,则其谓语要用复数形式;若该名词为不可数名词或可数名词的单数形式,则其谓语要用单数形式:

    1.a.Most of the apples are bad.这些苹果当中大部分是坏的。

    b.Most of the apple is bad.这个苹果坏了一大部分。

    c.Most of the time was spent on it.这上面花了大部分时间。

    2.a.Half of the buildings were destroyed in the fire.

    有一半的楼房在大火中被毁。

    b.Half of the building was destroyed in the fire.

    这座大楼在大火中有一半被毁。

    c.Half of the money was spent on food.有一半的钱用来买食物。

    3.a.30 percent of the workers here are women.

    这里的工人有30%是女性。

    b.30 percent of the work has been done.有30%的工作已完成。

    c.30 percent of the wall has been painted.墙壁有30%已被刷漆。

    114.means 何时是单数何时是复数

    例     All possible means ____ been tried.

    Every possible means ____ been tried.

    A.have,have      B.has,has

    C.have,has       D.has,have

    此题应选C。名词means(方法)的单复数同形,用作主语时,其谓语的单复数要视具体含义而定:

    1.如果means 与all,such,these,those 等词连用,则其含义应该是复数:

    Such means sound interesting,but in fach they're impossible.

    那样的方法听起来有趣,但实际上是不可能的。

    2.如果means 与a,such a,this,that,every 等词连用,则其含义应该是单数:

    Such a means is really unpleasant.

    这样的方法确实是令人不愉快的。

    There is an effective means of doing it.

    做此事有一种很有效的方法。

    3.有时从句意和上下文无法确定means 到底是单数还是复数,则其谓语用单数或复数均可以:

    做这事还有其它的什么办法吗?

    正:Are there any other means of doing it?

    正:Is there any other means of doing it?

    没有好的方法。

    正:There is no good means.

    正:There are no good means.

    115.学习强调句要注意哪些

    例    Was it in this palace ____the emperor died?

    A.that     B.in which    C.in where    D.which

    此题应选A 。这是一个强调句型。强调句的基本结构为:

    It is[ was] +被强调部分 +that +其它部分

    He bought the book in this shop yesterday.

    →It was he that bought the book in this shop yesterday.

    (强调主语he)

    →It was the book that he bought in this shop yesterday.

    (强调宾语the book)

    →It was in this shop that he bought the book yesterday.

    (强调地点状语in this shop)

    另外注意以下两点:

    1.当被强调部分指人时,可以用who 代that;但是当被强调部分指物时通常不宜用which 来代that(尽管有人用which,但很不常见,考试时应避免),另外当被强调部分为时间或地点状语时,一般也不宜用when/where 代that(尤其是当这些状语为介词短语时)。

    2.被强调的成分除了是名词、代词、介词短语等之外,也可以是从句(但通常不能是由since,as 引导的原因状语从句或由al-though 引导的让步状语从句):

    It was because he loved my money that he married me.

    他是因为爱我的钱才同我结了婚。

    116.强调句的特殊疑问形式

    例    Who was ____that stole the bike?

    A.it    B.that    C.he    D.this

    此题应选A 。这是强调句的特殊疑问句形式,做这类题考生最容易出错的在于不能识别这是强调句。

    比较:

    a.It was Mary that said that.(对Mary 提问)

    → Who was it that said that?

    b.It was in 1949 that he joined the Party.(对 in 1949 提问)

    → When was it that he joined the Party?

    请做以下各题:

    1.Who was it ____put so many large stones on the road?

    A.this    B.that    C.he    D.she

    2 .What was It ____he lost on the bus the day before yesterday?

    A.this    B.that    C.what     D.when

    3.When was ____that the general manager left for Japan?

    A.he    B.it    C.that    D.since

    4.Why was ____that the old woman was sent to prison?

    A.he    B.it    C.that    D.because

    5.What a silly mistake it is ____you've made!

    A.it     B.this    C.that    D.which

    答案:1.B 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.C

    117.这不是强调句吗

    例   It might have been John ____bought a new book for Mary  yesterday.

    A.what     B.since    C.that    D.then

    此题应选C 。此题的难点在于考生看不出这是一个强调句型,因为主句的谓语动词be 采用了might have been 这一复杂形式。此句若改为非强调句,则可以是:

    John might have bought a new book for Mary yesterday.

    约翰昨天可能给玛丽买了一本新书。

    将此句改为强调句(强调主语),则可以有两种形式:

    a .It is John that might have bought a new book for Mary yesterday.

    b.It might have been John that bought a new book for Mary yesterday.

    又如:

    It must be a girl that wrote the letter.写这封信的一定是个女孩。

    It might be yesterday that he left for Beijing.他可能是昨天去北京的。

    Can it be Jim that has stolen the money?偷钱的会是吉姆吗?

    It may be next week that he leaves for Paris.他可能是下个星期去巴黎。

    It might have been her boyfriend that bought so nice a hand-bag for her.

    给她买那样好看一个手提包的可能是她的男朋友。
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:43 | 显示全部楼层 8#
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (118---130)


    118.你会将not …until 用于强调句型吗

    例    It was not ____he took off his dark glasses ____I realized  he was a famous singer.

    A.when,that       B.until,that

    C.until,when      D.when,then

    此题选B 。考察not until 的强调结构,其基本句型为:

    It is[ was] not until(时间状语)that(不用否定)

    他妻子走了之后他才来。

    正:He didn't come until his wife left.

    正:It was not until his wife left that he came.

    直到雨停他们才出发。

    正:They didn't start until the rain stopped.

    正:It was not until the rain stopped that they started.

    请做以下各题:

    1.It was not until midnight ____the noise of the street stopped.

    A.that    B.this   C.since   D.at which

    2.It was not ____1920 ____regular radio broadcast began.

    A.for,that        B.until,that

    C.for,when       D.until,when

    3.It was not ____you had explained how ____I managed to do it.

    A.for,that       B.until,that

    C.for,when      D.until,when

    答案:1.A 2.B 3.B

    119.It is …that 通常不能强调哪些成分

    例    It was a teacher that she ____.

    A.was    B.seemed    C.looked    D.married

    此题应选D 。从句意上看似乎4 个选项都行,其实这里只能填D 。因为填A,B,C 中的任意一个选项,都会导致句中的a teacher 成为表语,然而按照强调句句法规则,It is …that 这一强调句型是不能强调表语的。一般说来,以下成分不能用于强调句中的被强调部分:

    1.表语:

    她很美。

    正:She is beautiful.

    误:It is beautiful that she is.

    但是宾语补足语却可以用作被强调部分:

    他们选他担任主席。

    正:They elected him chairman.

    正:It was chairman that they elected him.

    2.since,as 原因状语从句(但because 从句却可以):

    他不能来是因为他病了。

    正:It is because he is ill that he can't come.

    误:It is since[ as] he's ill that he can't come.

    3.although 引导的让步状语从句:

    虽然累了,但他还是去了。

    正:He went although he was tired.

    误:It was although he was tired that he went.

    120.这是强调句吗

    例    It was 9 o'clock ____he came back last night.

    A.that    B.when   C.since   D.this

    此题应选B 。容易误选A,误认为这是强调句型。假若这里填that,构成强调句型,那么被强调的 9 o'clock 是什么成分呢(注意它不能作状语)?但是若在 9 o'clock 前加一个介词(at,after,before 等),则可以填that 构成强调句。

    试比较:

    It was at ten o'clock that he came back.他回来时是10 点钟。

    It was after ten o'clock that he came back.他是在10 点过后回来的。

    It was before ten o'clock that he came back.他是在10 点前回来的。

    以上分析告诉我们,上题填that 不对(除非 9 o'clock 前有介词)。那么填when 又作何解释呢?本题填when,全句构成主从复合句,其中的when 引导时间状语从句(意为“当…的时候”),全句意为:当他回来时,时间是晚上9 点。

    再请比较:

    a.It was lunchtime when he called.当他来访时,已是吃中饭的时候。

    b.It was at lunchtime that he called.他是在吃中饭的时候来访的。

    121.反意问句何时用肯定何时用否定

    例      He never comes late, ____ he?

    A.does    B.doesn't    C.is   D.isn't

    此题应选A。容易误选B。按照构成反意问句的一般规则:当陈述部分为肯定式时,反意问句要用否定式;陈述部分为否定式时,反意问句要用肯定式:

    He gets up at six in the morning,doesn't he?他早上6 点起床,是吗?

    He doesn't get up at six in the morning,does he?

    他早上不是在6 点起床,是吗?

    另外,若陈述部分含有seldom,hardly,never,rarely,few,nothing,nowhere 等否定词或半否定词,则其反意问句部分要用肯定式:

    Dick rarely got drunk,did he?迪克很少喝醉,是吗?

    Few people like such a man,do they?很少有人会喜欢那样的人,是吗?

    He seldom comes to see you,does he?他很少来看你,是吗?

    Nothing in the book is interesting,is it?

    这本书里没有一点是有趣的,是吗?

    但是,若陈述部分有否定前缀,反意问句仍用否定式:

    It is unfair,isn't it?这不公平,不是吗?

    He is unknown,isn't he?他不出名,是吗?

    122.反意问句的主语有何要求

    例      Peter likes history, ____ ?

    A.doesn't Peter      B.doesn't he

    C.does Peter         D.does he

    此题应选B。容易误选A。关于反意问句的主语问题,以下几点要注意:

    1.在通常情况下,反意问句部分的主语只能是代词:

    这男孩很聪明,是吗?

    正:The boy was clever wasn't he?

    误:The boy was clever, wasn't the boy?

    2.当陈述部分为there be 句型时,反意问句仍用there 作“主语”(实为引导词):

    There's rice in it,isn't there?里面是大米,是吗?

    3.当陈述部分的主语是this,that,these,those 等指示代词时,反意问句用it,they 等代词:

    That is a new car,isn't it?这是一辆新汽车,是吗?

    4.当陈述部分用不定代词one 作主语时,其反意问句可用one(正式)或you(非正式):

    One can't be too careful,can one[you]?越仔细越好,不是吗?

    5.当陈述部分的主语是somebody,someone,everyone,ev-erybody,no one,nobody 等时,其反意问句的主语在正式文体中用he,在口语或非正式文体中通常用they:

    Nobody came,did he[they]?没有人来,是吗?

    6 . 当陈述部分的主语是something , anything , nothing ,everything.等时,其反意问句的主语通常用it:Nothing is new,is it?没有什么是新的,是吗?

    123.如何理解这个aren't I

    例     I'm your friend, ____ ?

    A.amn't I       B.amn't you

    C.aren't I       D.aren't you

    此题应选C。容易误选A。这是一种比较特殊的反意问句,即陈述部分是I'm 结构时,反意问句通常要用aren't I。产生这种特殊现象的主要原因是:因为反意问句为否定式时通常要缩写(若不缩写则用较正式的am I not),而amnot 在标准英语中又没有相应的缩写式,所以人们便用aren't 来代之。

    但是值得注意的是aren't 只适用于单数第一人称的问句形式(不能用于陈述句):

    正:I'm wrong,aren't I?我错了,是吗?

    正:Aren't I clever?我是不是很聪明?

    误:I aren't clever.(我不聪明)

    正:I'm not clever.我不聪明。

    顺便说一句,在英语的方言和未受过教育的人使用的语言中,还有一个缩写式用得很经常,就是ain't,它可以代表 am not,are not,is not,has not,have not 等(考试时应避免):

    I ain't going to tell you about it.我不准备把此事告诉你。

    My girlfriend ain't come for weeks.我的女朋友有好几个星期没有来了。

    Don't speak to me like that—you ain't my boss.

    不要那样对我说话,你又不是我的老板。

    —It's raining.下雨了。

    —No,it ain't.没有下。

    124.陈述部分有动词have,反意问句如何构成

    例     He hasn't a lot of time to spare, ____ he?

    A.has      B.does    C.hasn't     D.doesn't

    此题应选A。容易误选B。关于陈述部分含有动词have 时,其反意问句的动词形式应注意以下几点:

    1.当have 为助动词时,其反意问句沿用同样的助动词:

    He has read it,hasn't he?他读过它了,是吗?

    2.当have 为实义动词时,要分两种情况:

    1)若表示“所有”,反意问句可以沿用陈述部分的have,也可以用do 的适当形式:

    He has a computer,hasn't[doesn't]he?他有一台电脑,是吗?

    但是若陈述部分为have 的否定式,则反意问句用have 还是用do,取决于陈述部分的动词形式:

    He hasn't any money,has he?他没有钱,是吗?

    He doesn't have any money,does he?他没有钱,是吗?

    2)表示“所有”以外的意思时,反意问句要用do:

    He has supper at 5,doesn't he?他5 点吃晚餐,是吗?

    He had a good time at the party,didn't he?

    他在晚会上玩得很开心,是吗?

    3.当用于have to(必须,不得不)时,通常也有两种可能:若是表示经常性的行为,则多用加助动词do 的形式;若是表示特定的行为,则多沿用陈述部分的have:

    He often has to get up early,doesn't he?他经常要早起,是吗?

    He has to go to bed late tonight,hasn't he?他今晚要迟睡,是吗?

    125.含有情态动词的句子如何变为反意问句

    例   He must have watched TV last night, ____ he?

    A.musntn't        B.needn't

    C.didn't           D.haven't

    此题应选C。容易误选A。关于陈述部分含有情态动词的反意问句,其变化形式比较复杂,

    现总结如下:

    1.当陈述部分含有must 表示必须或有必要时,其反意问句可用musnt't 或needn't:

    You must go there at once,mustn't[needn't]you?

    他必须(有必要)马上去那儿,是吗?

    但是若陈述部分有mustn't 表示禁止,反意问句要用must:

    You mustn't laugh,must you?你不准笑,知道吗?

    2.当陈述部分有must 表示推测时,反意问句不能用must,而应根据must 后的动词结构采用相应的动词形式:

    He must be tired,isn't he?他一定累了,是吗?

    He must have read it,hasn't[didn't]he?他一定读过它,是吗?

    He must have left yesterday,didn't he?他昨晚一定走了,是吗?

    (句中因用yesterday,故用didn't)

    3.当陈述部分含有may 时,其反意问句根据情况可以用mayn't,mightn't,won't 等:

    I may leave now,mayn't I?我可以走了,行吗?

    He may be here next week,mightn't[won't]he?

    他下星期可能来这里,是吗?

    4.当陈述部分有used to 时,反意问句可用used to/did:

    He used to come here,usedn't[didn't]he?

    他过去常来这儿,是吗?

    126.陈述部分有Let's/Let us,如何构成反意问句

    例    a.Let us tell you what has happened, ____ you?

    b.If you want to go,let us go together, ____ we?

    A.will,will         B.shall,shall

    C.shall,will        D.will,shall

    此题应选 D。容易误选A。不少人认为:陈述部分为 let us (分开写)时,反意问句就一定用 will you;而陈述部分为 let's(缩写)时,反意问句就一定要用 shall we。其实这种说法是不准确的。

    为了弄清这个问题,首先要区别 let us /let's:

    1.let us 中的us 既可指说话者一方(此时表示请求或命令),也可以指说话者和听话者双方(此时表示建议或劝诱,此用法较正式)。

    2.let's 中的's(=us)则一定指说话者和听话者双方(表示建议或劝诱),不能指说话者一方(即不能用来表示命令或请求)。

    弄清了以上区别,便可讨论其反意问句了:一般说来,表示请求或命令(此时须分写为let us)时,反意问句要用will you;表示建议或劝诱(此时可缩写或分开写)时,反意问句要用 shall we:

    Let us know your address,will you?请把你的地址告诉我们,好吗?

    (表请求,故用will you?)

    Let us go swimming together,shall we?我们一起去游泳好吗?

    (表示建议[较正式],故用shall we?)

    Let's go swimming together,shall we?我们一起去游泳好吗?

    (表示建议[较口语化],故用shall we?)

    127.祈使句如何变为反意问句

    例     a.come early tomorrow, ____ you?

    b.Don't be late again, ____ you?

    A.will,do         B.won't,will

    C. will,can't       D.won't,won't

    此题应选B。关于祈使句的反意问句要注意以下几点:

    1.当陈述部分为祈使句时,反意问句通常用will you,won't you,

    would you 等:

    Do sit down,will you?请坐下,好吗?

    Come here,won't you?请过来,好吗?

    Give me a hand,would you?帮我一下,好吗?

    有时根据语境的需要,反意问句也可以用can you,can”t you,why don't you,could you 等:

    Give me some cigarettes,can you?给我些香烟,可以吗?

    (=Can you give me some cigarettes?)

    Walk faster,can't you?走快点,不行吗?(=Can't you walk faster?)

    一般说来,用will you,won't you,would you 等构成的反意问句,语气较委婉。试比较:

    Be quiet,will you?请安静,好吗?(较委婉)

    Be quiet,can't you?你不能安静点吗?(不够委婉)

    2.当陈述部分为否定的祈使句时,其反意问句通常只用willyou:

    Don't move it,will you?不要动它,好吗?

    Don't forget to phone me,will you?别忘了给我打电话,好吗?

    128.陈述部分为I think that 时,如何构成反意问句

    例    I don't think that he cares, ____ ?

    A.do I          B.does he

    C.don't I        D.doesn't he

    此题应选B。容易误选A。当陈述部分为主从复合句时,其反意问句要注意以下情况:

    1.对于一般的主从复合句,其反意问句通常与主句保持一致:

    She says that I did it,doesn't she?她说那是我干的,是吗?

    He thinks that the price is too high, doesn't he?

    他认为这价格太高了,是吗?

    He told you that the meeting would be put off,didn't he?

    他告诉你会议要延期,是吗?

    2.当陈述部分的主句为 I think,I suppose,I believe 等结构时,反意问句通常与从句保持一致(注意否定的转移):

    I think that he is wrong,isn't he?我认为他错了,是吗(他错了吗)?

    I don't think he likes it,does he?我认为他不喜欢它,是吗(他喜欢吗)?

    注意:有时可见以下特殊形式的问句:I think he is wrong,don't you?此句摘自《朗文当代英语词典》,其大意为:我认为他错了,你说呢?其实此句中的 don't you?相当于 don't you think so?

    以下实例也属类似情况:I think she is mad,don't you?

    129.你知道感叹句的基本句型吗

    例    ____ terrible weather we have been having thesedays!

    A.How a     B.What a    C.How     D.What

    此题应选D。容易误选B,C。感叹句的两类基本结构为:

    a.How +adj/adv +主语 +谓语!

    b.What +(a/an) +adj +n +主语 +谓语!

    在b 类句型中要特别注意的是:若其中的名词是不可数名词(尤其是 advice,food,fun,harm,homework,housework,information,luck,news,progress,weather,wealth 等)或复数名词,则其前不用不定冠词。

    请做有关练习:

    1. ____ careless he is!

    A.What         B.How   C.So much   D.How  much

    2.Oh,John ____ pleasant surprise you gave us!

    A.How a         B.How   C.What a    D. What

    3. ____ nice food you've cooked!

    A.How a    B.What a      C.How      D.What

    4. ____ great fun it is!

    A.What     B.How        C. What a   D.How a

    5. ____ bad luck we have had!

    A.What     B.How        C.How a    D.What a

    答案:1.B 2.C 3.D 4.A 5.A

    130.这句话的词序值得注意

    例      a.They ____ clever!

    b.How clever they ____ !

    A.all are,all are      B.are all, are all

    C.all are,are all      D.are all,all are

    此题应选D。容易误选B。

    1.a 句填are all(They are all clever),这还好理解。

    2.b 句要填all are(How clever they all are),这对考生来说就比较费解了。

    关于这个问题要注意两点:

    1)在通常情况下,像all,both,never,always,often 等词应放在特殊动词

    (助动词,情态动词,be 动词)之后:

    We are all students.我们都是学生。

    We have never been there.我们从未去过那儿。

    2)但是当all,both,never 等词和特殊动词位于句末时,两者要交换位置:

    他从未去过日本,但我们俩去过。

    误:He has never been to Japan,but we have both.

    正:He has never been to Japan,but we both have.

    3)由于感叹句的句型特点是

    a.How +adj/adv +主语 +谓语!

    b.What +(a/an) +adj +n +主语 +谓语!

    即“主语 +谓语”位于句末,所以此时要特别注意:若谓语为“all,both 等 +特殊动词”,

    不要搞错了位置:

    They are both excited.他们俩都很激动。

    →How excited both are!他们俩真激动!

    What与How的感叹句用法

    What a beautiful flower this is!

    How beautiful this flower is!

    如何区别及应用以上两种感叹句式,首先得了解作感叹词时,what与how各自的词性及其语法功能:

    what adj. 修饰名词;

    how adv. 修饰形容词、副词及动词。

    针对名词发出感叹时,用what引导;针对形容词、副词及动词发出感叹时,用how引导。

    归纳起来,由what与how所引导的感叹句,常见的句型有:

    1. 针对主语补语(即表语)部分所发出的感叹句,其句型为:What / How +主语补语+主语+谓语动词。例如:

    What a beautiful flower this is!

    这是多么漂亮的花儿啊!

    How beautiful this flower is!

    这花儿多么漂亮啊!

    2. 针对主语部分的感叹句,其句型为:What +主语+谓语动词。例如:

    What a strange fellow is coming!

    来了个多么奇怪的家伙!

    3. 针对宾语部分的感叹句,其句型为:What +宾语+主语+谓语动词。例如:

    What a fuss they made!

    瞧他们这般大惊小怪的样子!

    4. 针对状语部分的感叹句,其句型为:What / How +状语+主语+谓语动词。例如:

    What a long time we have been waiting for you!

    我们一直等你等了好久了!

    How cruelly he treated his slaves!

    他对待奴隶多么残酷呀!

    How accomplished a pianist he is!

    他的钢琴造诣何等高超哇!

    5. 针对谓语动词的感叹句,其句型为:How +主语+谓语动词。例如:

    How I hated these beasts!

    我多么痛恨这些畜牲!

    由what与how所引导的感叹句常采用的省略式有两种类型:

    1. 语法省略式 例如:

    What a useful book (I have)!

    (我有)多有用的一本书啊!

    What splendid cloth (it looks)!

    (这看上去)多精美的布啊!

    How hot (I’m feeling)!

    (这会儿我感到)多热呀!

    这种省略式通常限于主谓部分的省略,用于述听双方都明确其意思的场合。该句式突出感叹部分,而并不影响句子的原意。

    2. 语义省略式 例如:

    What a lie!

    真是弥天大谎!

    What a day!

    鬼天气!

    How the baby cried!

    这婴儿哭得多厉害呀!

    How you frightened me!

    瞧你吓死我啦!

    这种省略式的特点是有意将所感叹的中心词抽掉,造成语义上的空白,从而取得含蓄的效果。然而,正是由于其“语义空白”,有时难免造成理解上的含混。比如,针对上句What a day!你既可以理解为:

    What a wonderful day!

    多美妙的天气啊!

    也可以理解为:

    What an ugly day!

    多糟糕的天气呀!

    这时,需借助语境或根据说话人的语气进行判断。

    最后,附带提出what与how所引起的感叹句的语序问题。一般场合,其完整的语序为:

    What / How感叹部分+主语+谓语动词。

    但偶尔也采用倒装结构(主语与谓语动词的功能词倒置),即

    What / How感叹部分+功能词+主语+(谓语动词)。

    例如:

    What a fool am I!

    我真是个傻瓜蛋!

    How carefully did they search the room!

    他们把房间搜查得多仔细哟!

    这类句子可见于口语或相当旧式的文体中,现代英语的正式文体较为罕见。

    【注1】what作为感叹词,传统英语语法归类为形容词,但现代英语语法将其归类为限定词(determiner)【注2】实义动词be和have(has)本身可充当功能词,直接用于倒装结构。
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:46 | 显示全部楼层 9#
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (131---145)  
    131.此题应填unless 还是until

    例   I didn't manage to do it ____ you had explained how.

    A.unless    B.until   C.when   D.since

    此题应选B。这道题从句意来看似乎选A,B 都行。不少考生看不出选项A 错在什么地方,这里我们可以从句意和时态两方面来分析:

    选A,句意为:你若没给我解释,我就不会做好它。——按此选择,主句谓语应用 would have managed 之类的,也就是说这是一个虚拟语气的句子。

    选B,句意为:直到你给我作了解释,我才会做。——按此选择,你先给我解释,我后才会做,所以“解释”用过去完成时,“会做”用一般过去,顺理成章。

    请做以下试题:

    1.I didn't know anything about it ____ he told me.

    A.unless    B.until   C.when   D.since

    2. ____ he spoke I hadn't realized he was a foreigner.

    A.Unless    B.Until   C.When   D.Since

    3.I didn't realize he was our teacher ____ he came in front of me.

    A.unless   B.until     C.when   D.since

    4. ____ he told me,I had no idea of it.

    A.unless    B.until     C.when   D.since

    答案:1.B 2.B 3.B 4.B

    132.带有until 状语从句的主句谓语有何特点

    例      We ____ until he came.

      A.stopped    B.arrived    C.left   D.waited

    此题应选D。选项A,B,C 都有可能被误选。要弄清此题需弄清以下几点:

    1.until 意为“一直到”,其相应主句的谓语只能是持续性的,而不能是终止性的。它表示的是:主句动作一直持续到从句动作发生时为止。以上一题的A,B,C 选项是错的,主要是因为其含义荒唐:

    若选A,句意为:我们一直在停止,直到他来就不停止了。

    若选B,句意为:我们一直在到达,直到他来就不到达了。

    若选C,句意为:我们一直在离开,直到他来就不离开了。

    以上各句的意思显然不通。选D 是对的,因为其意为:我们一直在等,直到他来就不等了(即我们一直等到他来)。

    2.上面说到,与until 从句连用的主句谓语不能是终止性动词,但是若这个谓语是否定的,则可以是终止性动词,因为终止性动词一旦被否定,即成为状态,而状态都是可以持续的(注:not ?until 意为:直到?才):

    误:We stopped until he came.

    正:We didn't stop until he came.直到他来我们才停止。

    误:We started until the rain stopped.

    正:We didn't start until the rain stopped.

    直到雨停我们才开始。

    误:He finished it until it was dark.

    正:He didn't finish it until it was dark.

    直到天黑他才完成。

    133.如何区分as,when,while

    例    I kept silent ____ he was speaking.

    A.as      B.when    C.while   D.that

    此题应选C。关于as,when,while 表示“当?的时候”的区别,

    可作如下归纳:

    1.若主句表示的是一个短暂性动作,而从句表示的是一个持续性动作,

    则三者均可用:

    He fell asleep when[while,as]he was reading.他看书时睡着了。

    2.若主从句表示两个同时进行的持续性动作,且强调主句表示的动作延续到从句所指的整个时间,一般只用while:

    While he played the piano,I cooked the dinner.

    他弹钢琴时,我做了饭。

    3.若主从句动作同时发生,且强调“一边一边”这样的意思,一般要用as:She sang as she went along.她边走边唱。

    4.若从句是一个短暂性动作,而主句是一个持续性动作,可用as/when,但不能用while:

    When[As]he came,I was listening to the radio.

    他来时,我在听收音机。

    5.若主从句表示的是两个同时发生的短暂性动作,

    一般用as(也可用when):

    I thought of it just as[when]you opened your mouth.

    就在你要说话的时候,我也想到了。

    6.表示“每当?的时候”(强调规律性),或主从句动作不是同时发生,而是有先后顺序,一般都用when:

    It's cold when it snows.下雪时天冷。

    134.关于hardly...when 及no sooner...than

    例  He had hardly arrived at the station ____ the train be- gan  to leave.

    A.when     B.that     C.than     D.where

    此题要选A。容易误选C。以下两类句型意思和用法大致相同,但搭配不同:

    a.hardly...when

    b.no sooner...than

    以上句型需注意以下几点:

    1)两个句型均指“一?就”,句型a 中的hardly 也可换成scarcely,barely;其中的when 也可换成before。但是,千万不要将句型a 中的when 与句型b 中的than 弄混。

    2)以上两类句型的主句通常是过去完成时,而从句通常应是一般过去时。

    3)若将 hardly,no sooner 置于句首,其后要倒装句式。

    1.I had hardly closed my eyes __the telephone rang.

    A.when    B.that   C.than   D.where

    2.Hardly had we arrived ____ it started to rain.

    A.when    B.that   C.than   D.where

    3.He had no sooner heard the knock ____ he opened the door.

    A.when    B.that   C.than   D.where

    4.No sooner had he done it ____ he knew he had made a mistake.

    A.when    B.that    C.than   D.where

    答案:1.A 2.A 3.C 4.C

    135.the minute 等可用作连词吗

    例      We'll begin our meeting the ____ Mr Smith arrives.

    A.hour     B.minute    C.second    D.time

    此题应选B。容易误选D。此句中的the minute 相当于连词as soon as(一……就…..)。

    类似的有:the moment,the instant 等:

    I'll tell you all about it the moment he returns.

    他一回来,我就把一切统统告诉你。

    The instant he opened the door, a dog ran in.

    他一开门,一条狗就跑了进来。

    The minute I saw her,I recognized her.

    我一看到她就认出了她。

    以下词语也可用作连词,引导状语从句:any time(任何时候),every time(每次),each time(每逢?的时候),next time(下次),last time(上次), the first time(第一次),the day(?的那一天), the year(?的那一年)等:

    Any time he likes to come,I will see him.

    无论他何时想来,我都愿意见他。

    She smiles every time she sees me.

    她每次见到我都笑。

    He fell in love with her the first time he saw her.

    他第一次见到她就爱上了她。

    The day her husband died, she gave birth to a son.

    就在她丈夫死的那天,她生下了一个儿子。

    He lett Europe the year World War ll broke oUt.

    第二次世界大战爆发的那一年,他离开了欧洲。

    136.这个where 引导的是什么从句

    例When you read the book,you'd better make a mark ____ you have  any questions.

    A.which    B.at which   C.where   D.that

    此题应选C。容易误选A,B,D,误认为这是定语从句。假若这是定语从句,A(which)和D(that)应是关系代词,但它们却不能充当定语从句中的主语或宾语,故不成立。至于B(at which),也不合语法,因为其中的介词at 无法与从句中的任何一个词发生联系。

    此题选C,这里的where 是引导地点状语从句的连词,意为“在?的地方”,全题意为:你读这本书时,最好在有问题的地方作一个记号。

    类似例子:

    There were lots of parks where I lived.我住的地方有许多公园。

    You should let your children play where you can see them.

    你应该让你的孩子在你能看到的地方玩。

    After the war,a new school building was put up where there had been a theatre.

    战后人们在曾经是剧院的地方建了一幢新教学楼。

    You can find your umbrella where you left it.

    你可以在你放伞的地方找到你的伞。

    在以下结构中,where 暗示一种条件(=if):

    Where there is a will,there is a way.有志者事竟成。

    Where you find high wages,you'll generally find high prices.

    工资高的地方通常物价就高。

    137.unless 与if not

    例     You'll miss the train ____ you hurry up.

    A.unless    B.as    C.if not    D.until

    此题应选A。容易误选C。其实C 只是词序不对,若改为ifyou don't hurry up 也是对的。在许多情况下,连词until 与if not 同义,且可换用(表示一种否定的条件)。

    要是不下雨,我们就去。

    正:We shall go unless it rains.

    正:We shall go if it doesn't rain.

    我不打电话给你,你就不要来。

    正:Don't come unless I phone you.

    正:Don't come if I don't phone you.

    从以上两例可以看出,unless 有时可以与if not 换用,但if not中的not 必须位于从句谓语中,而不能直接与if 连用在一起。但是注意,即使如此,两者也并不是永远可以换用的:

    一般说来,两者互换的场合只限于:当我们要去结束一个已经存在的想法或状态时(而不是去开始一种新的想法或状态)。

    试体会:

    I'll stay at home unless I am invited (=if I am not invited)to the party.

    要是不邀请我去参加晚会,我就呆在家里。(即“邀请我参加晚会”会结束“我将呆在家里”这一现在的打算)若要表示所述条件会导致一种新的想法或情况,通常要用if not,而不用unless。

    试体会:

    I'll be angry if I'm not invited to the party.

    如果不邀请我参加晚会,我会生气的。

    138.because,since,as,for 区别详解

    例     a.The groung is wet, ____ it rained last night.

    b.It rained last night, ____ the ground is wet.

    A.for,for        B.because,because

    C.for,because   D.because,for

    此题可以选D,也可以选A。关于表示原因的because 与for 的区别(以及与since,as 的区别),常使考生感到头痛。现简述如下:

    1.because 表示的是必然的因果关系,语气最强,通常放在主句之后,若需强调则放在主句之前;since/as 所表示的原因是人们已知的,是对已知事实提供理由,而不表示直接原因。它们引导的从句通常放在主句前,有时也放在主句后:

    As he wasn't ready in time,we went without him.

    因他未及时准备好,我们没等他就先走了。

    Since we've no money,it's no good thinking about a holi- day.

    既然我们没有钱,考虑度假有什么用。

    2.至于for,它是并列连词(其余三者为从属连词),它的用法有两点要注意:

    1)有时可表示因果关系,此时可与because 换用,两者不同的是for只能放主句后,而because 可放在主句前或后:

    He couldn't have seen me,for [because]I was not there.

    他不可能看到了我,因为我当时不在那儿。

    2)有时不表示因果关系,而只是对前面分句内容的解释或推断(也要放在主句之后,但不能与because 换用):

    It is moming,for the birds are singing.已是早晨了,你听鸟儿在唱歌了。

    139.你会使用引导让步状语的however 吗

    例    If we work with a strong will,we can overcome any difficulty,____ great it is.

    A.what     B.how   C.however   D.whatever

    此题应选C。由于此题空格后是一个形容词(great),所以排除A(what)和D(whatever)。至于为什么选however 而不选how,这要从however 的用法说起。

    however 引导让步状语从句,表示“无论如何”、“不管怎样”(=no matter how),与形容词或副词连用时,词序为:however +形容词或副词 +主语 +谓语

    I will come however busy I am.我不管多忙都会来的。

    However late he is,we will wait for him to have dinner together.

    无论他回来得多迟,我们都会等他一起吃饭。

    We always go swimming in the river however cold it is.

    无论天气多冷,我们都去河里游泳。

    However rich people are,they always want more.

    人们不管多么有钱,他们总是想有更多的钱。

    However fast you drive,I always feel safe with you.

    无论你把车开得多快,和你在一起我永远感到安全。

    有时其后可以不出现形容词或副词:

    However you travel,it'll take you at least two days.

    无论你怎么走法,至少都得两天时间。

    However you come,be sure to come early.

    不管你怎么来,一定要早来。

    140.名词性从句可用疑问句词序吗

    例      No one knows ____ in a million years.

    A.what man will look like

    B.what will man look like

    C.man will look like what

    D.what look will man like

    此题应选A。容易误选B。这里考察的主要是:名词性从句(宾语从句)的词序问题。名词性从句包括宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等四类。不管是哪一类名词性从句,其词序一律用陈述句词序,而不能用疑问句词序。

    1.They want to know ____ do to help us.

    A.what can they   B.what they can

    C.how they can   D.how they can

    2.They have no idea at all ____ .

    A.where he has gone       B.where has he gone

    C.which place he has gone   D.where did he go

    3.The photographs will show you ____ .

    A.what does our village look like

    B.what our village looks like

    C.how does our village look like

    D.how our village looks like

    答案:1.B 2.A 3.B

    141.引导名词从句的whether 与that

    例   ____ we'll go camping tomorrow depenps on the weather.

    A.If    B.Whether   C.That   D.When

    此题应选B。容易误选A,C。

    1.关于if 与whether:两者都可引导宾语从句,常可换用;但若引导主语从句,则用whether(不用if),排除A。又如:

    他是否会来还是个问题。

    误:If he will come is a question.

    正:Whether he will come is a question.

    2.关于whether 和that:两者都可引导主语从句,其区别主要应从句意来考虑:whether 表示“是否”,由它引导的主语从句的意思通常是不确定的;that 引导主语从句时,本身没有词义(that 在其它名词性从句中也没有词义),但是由that 引导的整个主语从句的意思通常是确定的。试比较:

    1.a.That we'll hold a meeting is decided.

    我们要召开一次会议,这已决定了。

    b.Whether we'll hold a meeting is not decided.

    我们是否要开一个会,这还没有决定。

    2.a.That he has left here is clear.他已离开了这儿,这点很清楚。

    b.Whether he has left here is not clear.

    他是否已离开这儿,这还不清楚。

    3.a.That he can finish it in two hours is clear.

    b.whether he can finish it in two hours is a question.

    142.引导名词性从句的what

    例     ____ he said at the meeting astonished everyone present.

    A.What    B.That    C.If      D.Whether

    此题应选A。选项C(if)显然不能选,因为if 通常不能引导主语从句;选项B(that)和D(whether)虽然都可以引导主语从句,但两者除了意思不合题意外,还有它们在主语从句中都不充当句子成分,而此句中的he said 缺宾语。在名词性从句中,what 根据情况不同,可能有两方面的用法和意思:

    1.用作连接代词,表示“什么”(由疑问词变来):

    I don't know what he gave her.我不知道他给了她什么。

    What he will say at the meeting is not known to us.

    他在会上将说些什么,我们还不知道。

    2.表示“所?的(东西)”,在结构上相当于一个名词加一个定语从句

    (所以有人称这样用的what 为关系代词型的what):

    把你买的东西拿给我看。

    Show me what you bought.

    →Show me the thing that you bought.

    这是他想要的东西。

    This is what he wants.

    →This is the thing that he wants.

    我们需要的是钱。

    What we need is money.

    →The thing that we need is money.

    143.如何区分引导名词性从句的what/that

    例    —I think ____ he needs is more practice.

    —Yes. ____ he needs more practice is clear.

    A.what,What       B.that,That

    C.what,That        D.that, What

    此题应选C。其余三项均可能被误选。What 和that 都可以引导名词性从句,但有区别:

    1.what 引导名词从句时,它在从句中要充当句子成分(主语、宾语等),而that 引导名词从句时,它在从句中不能充当句子成分。

    2.what 引导名词从句时,它有词义(表示:什么;所?的[东西]);而that 引导名词从句时,它没有词义。

    请做以下试题,注意区别what 和that:

    1. ____ you said is different from the thing ____ he told us.

    A.What,what       B.That,that

    C.What,that        D.That,what

    2.—I think he said is true.

    —But don't forget the fact ____ he is a cheat.

    A.what,what       B.that,that

    C.what,that        D.that,what

    3. ____ surprised us most is ____ he spoke English so well.

    A.What,what       B.That,that

    C.What,that        D.That,what

    答案:1.C 2.C 3.C

    144.whatever 与no matter what

    例       It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____

    he or she wants.

    A.whatever        B.no matter what

    C.whenever       D.no matter when

    此题应选A。容易误选B。选项C,D 显然是错的,因为句中的wants缺宾语,而C,D 两项不能作宾语。至于C,D 的区别,可这样描述:no matter what 只能引导状语从句,而不引导名词性从句。而whatever 既可引导名词性从句(=anything that),也可引导状语从句(=no matter what):

    1.引导名词性从句(只用whatever):

    无论他做什么都是对的。

    正:Whatever he did was right.

    误:No matter what he did was right.

    山羊找到什么就吃什么。

    正:Goats eat whatever they find.

    误:Goats eat no matter what they find.

    2.引导状语从句(两者可换用):

    无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。

    正:Whatever you say,I won't believe you.

    正:No matter what you say,I won't believe you.

    无论发生什么,都要保持镇定。

    正:Keep calm,whatever happens.

    正:Keep calm,no matter what happens.

    145.whoever 与no matter who

    例      I will give the ticket to ____ wants it.

    A.whoever      B.no matter who

    C.whatever      D.no matter what

    此题应选A。容易误选B。选项C,D 都是错的,因为从句意上看,“想要票的”应该是“人”(whoever)而不能是“东西”(whatever)。至于为什么选whoever 而不选no matter who,这要从它们在句中引导的成分说起:

    no matter who 通常只能引导状语从句,而不能引导名词性从句。而whoever 既可引导名词性从句(=anyone that)也可引导状语从句(=no matter who):

    1.引导名词性从句(只用whoever):

    谁想去我就带谁去。

    正:I'll take whoever wants to go.

    误:I'll take no matter who wants to go.

    不管这话是谁对你说的,他都是在撒谎。

    正:Whoever told you that was lying.

    误:No matter who told you that was lying.

    2.引导状语从句(两者可换用):

    不管是谁打电话来,都说我出去了。

    正:Whoever phones,tell them I'm out.

    正:No matter who phones,tell them I'm out.

    不管是谁这样说,那都是错的。

    正:Whoever says so,is is wrong.

    正:No matter who says so,it is wrong.
  • 从零开始

    社区贵宾

    发表于

    2011-10-29 15:47 | 显示全部楼层 10#
    初中英语疑难例析300例 (146---161)


    146.做定语从句试题的基本方法

    例     In fact the man didn't understand the three questions ____ were  asked in French.

    A.where     B.who    C.in which    D.which

    此题应选D。从句子成分看,修饰questions 的定语从句缺主语,所以不能选A(where),C(in which)。又因为这里的先行词(questions)是指事不是指人,所以只能选D(which)不能选B(who)。

    考生在做定语从句试题时,大体上要分清以下几点:

    1.是定语从句还是其它从句(从句意和句法功能等方面去考虑)。

    2.是用关系代词还是关系副词。关系代词和关系副词的选择主要看

    关系词在句中的句法功能。一般说来,关系代词(that, which,who,whom 等)主要用作主语和宾语;关系副词(when, where,why)主要用作状语;作定语时用whose。

    3.受定语从句修饰的先行词是指人(who,whom,that)还是指物(that,which);是作主语(who,that,which)还是作宾语(which,whom,who)等。

    4.关系代词可否省略(在通常情况下,只有限制性定语从句中用作宾语的关系代词才能省略)。

    5.是限制性定语从句还是非限制性定语从句(关系代词that 以及关系副词why 等均不能引导非限制性定语从句)。

    6.在“介词 +which”结构中,介词的正确选择(主要看相关名词和动词的习惯搭配)。

    147.能用what 引导定语从句吗

    例     He told me all ____ he had seen there.

    A.that     B.which   C.what   D.when

    此题应选A。容易误选C。这里的B(which),D(when)比较好排除。

    选项B 错,因为当先行词为不定代词all,little,much 等时,要用关系代词that,不用which。

    选项D 错,因为它是关系副词,只能在定语从句中作状语,而这里的定语从句缺宾语(即seen 宾语),所以不能选D。至于选项C(what),是考生最容易出错的,这是因为考生在平时的阅读中,经常可以见到类似这样的句子:

    He told me all he had seen there.

    He told me what he had seen there.

    由于没有完全理解,结果将以上两类句型混在一起。

    选项C 错的原因在于what 不是关系词,所以它不能引导定语从句。但值得注意的是:what 有时相当于“名词(先行词) +关系代词”:

    他把一切都给了我。

    正:He gave me what he had.

    正:He gave me everything that he had.

    这就是你要的东西。

    正:This is what you want.

    正:This is the thing that you want.

    以上实例告诉我们,what 有时相当于“先行词 +关系代词”,同时这也告诉我们,这样用的what 前不能再有先行词(即:what 不能引导定语从句)。

    148.不要一见到时间或地点名词就用where,when

    例    a.I will never forget the days ____ I lived in the country.

    b.I will never forget the days ____ I spent in the country.

    A.that,that      B.when,when

    C.that,when    D.when,that

    此题应选D。容易误选B。考生往往错误地认为,时间或地点名词后的定语从句就一定要用关系副词when 或where 来引导。注意在选择关系副词when 时,考生要明确两个问题:一是先行词是否是指时间或地点的名词,二是when,where 在定语从句中是否用作状语。

    a 句中的定语从句主语和宾语齐全,所以可用表时间的状语(when),而b 句中的定语从句,显然spent 缺宾语,所以选关系代词that。考生从以上分析中应明确这样一点:选择关系词时一定要看它在定语从句中充当什么成分。尤其是当先行词为表时间或地点的名词时,千万不要想当然地认为一定要用关系副词when 和where 来引导定语从句。

    再如:

    a.This is the school ____ I studied last year.

    b.This is the school ____ I visited last year.

    A.that,that       B.where,where

    C.that,where     D.where,that

    答案:D

    149.that 与which

    例子 a.Those are the very words ____ he used.

    b . This is the question about ____ we've had so much  discussion.

    A.that,that           B.which,which

    C.that,which         D.which,that

    此题应选C。关于先行词是指物的名词时,其定语从句是用that 还是用which 来引导,情况比较复杂:在通常情况下,两者有时可换用;

    但有时只用which(主要是引导非限制性定语从句和直接放在介词后作宾语);而有时则只用that 而不用which,主要有以下情况:

    1.先行词是下列不定代词或受其修饰时all,much,few,little,none,every(thing),any(thing),no(thing)等:

    All[Everything]that can be done must be done.凡能做的事都必须做。

    2.先行词有the very,the only,the same 等修饰时:

    This is the only example that I know.我知道的例子只有这一个。

    3.先行词有最高级或序数词(包括last,next)等修饰时:

    This is the best dictionary that I've ever used.这是我用过的最好的词典。

    4.关系代词在定语从句中作表语时:

    China is not the country(that) it was.中国已不是过去的中国了。

    5.先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时:

    We talked about the persons and things that most impressed us.

    我们谈论了我们印象最深的人和事。

    150.who 与what

    例    Who ____ has seen him do not like him?

    A.that     B.who    C.he   D.she

    此题应选A。其余几项均有可能被选。当先行词指人时,引导定语从句是用who 还是用that,主要应注意以下几点:

    1.在通常情况下,两者常可换用。

    2.在下列情况,两者都可用,但用that 比who 更常见:

    1)先行词是all,nobody,no one,someone,anypone 等时:

    All that heard him were delighted.所有听了他讲话的人都很高兴。

    Have you met anybody that has been to Paris?

    你遇见过去过巴黎的人吗?

    2)先行词受序数词,最高级以及only,same 等修饰时:

    He's the only one among us that knows French.

    他是我们中间唯一懂法语的人。

    3.在下列情况通常只用that:

    1)当先行词是一既指人又指物的并列词组时:

    He made a speech on the men and things that he'd seen abroad.

    他就在国外见到的人和事作了报告。

    2)当先行词是who 时:

    Who that has sympathy can laugh on that occasion?

    有同情心的人谁会在那个时候发笑呢?

    3)当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时:

    Tom is not the boy(that)he was.汤姆这孩子已不是以前那个样子了。

    151.是非限制性定语从句还是并列句

    例   —He wrote a lot of novels,none of ____ were popular.

    —It's the same with his wife.She wrote some plays,but none  of ____ was a success.

    A.these,them          B.which,which

    C.those,which          D.which,them

    此题应选D。很容易误选A,B。选对该题的关键是:要注意前面一句的none of 没有并列连词(说明它才是非限制性定语从句,所以其后填which),而后面一句的none of 前有一并列连词but(说明它与前面一句构成并列句,所以其后填them)。请做以下类似题(注意and,but等的有无):

    1.a.He has two sons,but neither of ____ is clever.

    b.He has two sons,neither of ____ is clever.

    A.them,them       B.whom,whom

    C.them,whom       D.whom,them

    2.a.Mr Smith made a lot of money,most of ____ was spent helping the poor.

    b.Mr Smitn mane a lot of money,and most of ____ was spent helping the poor.

    A.it,it       B.which,which

    C.it,which   D.which,it

    类似地,以下一题也与but,and 这类词的有无相关:

    3. ____ many times,but he still couldn't remember.

    A.Having been told       B.Being told

    C.Having told             D.He was told

    答案:1.C 2.D 3.D

    152.你会用关系代词as 吗

    例    Don't make friends with such young men ____ don't work hard.

    A.that     B.as     C.who     D.they

    此题应选B。容易误选A,C。句中的as 是关系代词,句意为:不要跟工作不努力的人交朋友。此句也可换成:

    正:Don't make friends with young men who [that] don't work hard.

    正:Don't make friends with those young men who[that] don't work hard.

    as 用作关系代词(用作主语或宾语),主要用法如下:

    1.用在such,same 等之后,引导限制性定语从句:

    Don't talk about such things as you don't understand.

    不要谈你不懂的东西。

    Such men as(=Those men who) heard him praised him.

    听过他谈话的人都称赞他。

    I told him the same story as you told me.

    我给他讲的故事与你给我讲的故事一样。

    2.单独用作关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前(常译为“正如”)或之后(常译为“这一点”):

    As has been said before,grammar is not a set of dead rules.

    正如前面所说,语法不是一套死规则。

    He was a foreigner,as (=which)I knew from his accent.

    他是个外国人,这从他的口音可以得知。

    If he comes late,as is usual,for another time,we will not receive him.

    如果他再像以往那样迟到,我们就不接待他了。

    153.the way 后可接how 引导的定语从句吗

    例    That is ____ the boy spoke to the teacher.

    A.how         B.the way how

    C.that         D.which

    此题应选A。容易误选B。误认为the way(表方式)后应接how 引导的定语从句(因为how 可用来表方式)。

    其实考生只要回忆一下我们学过的关系副词便知道:在现代英语中关系副词只有when(表时间),where(表地点),why(表原因)等几个,根本没有how 这个关系副词,所以它自然就不能引导定语从句。要表示类似本题的意思,可用以下句型:

    那就是他说话的样子。

    正:That's how he spoke.(表语从句)

    正:That's the way he spoke.

    正:That's the way(that) he spoke.

    正:That's the way(in which)he spoke.

    误:That's the way how he spoke.

    我不喜欢他那样笑她。

    正:I don't like the way he laughs at her.

    正:I don't like the way(that)he laughs at her.

    正:I don't like the way(in which)he laughs at her.

    误:I don't like the way how he laughs at her.

    他同我们说话的方式值得怀疑。

    正:The way he spoke to us was suspicious.

    正:The way(that)he spoke to us was suspicious.

    正:The way(in which)he spoke to us was suspicious.

    误:The way how he spoke to us was suspicious.

    154.whose 可以指物吗

    例    I saw some trees ____ leaves were black with disease.

    A.its     B.whose    C.his    D.the

    此题应选B。容易误选A。许多考生认为,关系代词whose 和who,whom 一样,只能指人,不能指物。

    事实上,用作关系代词的whose 与who,whom 不一样,它不仅可以指人也可以指物(用作定语):

    There are some students whose questions I can't answer.

    有些学生的问题我不能回答。

    Can you see the mountain whose top is covered with snow?

    你看得见山顶上覆盖着雪的那座山吗?

    Here is a word whose meaning escapes me.

    这里有一个词,我一下想不起它是什么意思了。

    当先行词为物时,其后引导定语从句的whose +n 也可换成the +n +of which/of which +the +n:

    窗户破了的那座房子是空的。

    正:The house whose windows are broken is empty.

    正:The house the windows of which are broken is empty.

    正:The house of which the windows are broken is empty.

    但是如果whose 所修饰的名词中心词之前有数词或其它限定词,则不用whose,而用of which:

    There I saw a large table,two legs of which were broken.

    在那里我看见有一张大桌子,其中有两条腿断了。

    155.不要在定语从句中使用与关系代词同义的人称代词

    例   —This is the book that I have read ____ dozens of times.

    —But I have never read ____ .

    A.it,×    B.×,it    C.it,it      D.×,×

    此题应选B。容易误选C。本题第二句填代词it,这容易理解。而第一句不能填it,则是考生很容易忽视的。显然第一句中的that I have read dozens of times 是修饰the book 的定语从句,此句中的动词read不能再接用it 作宾语,因为它已有宾语that (也可省略)。在做有关定语从句的试题时,考生千万不要在定语从句中重复使用与关系词(或先行词)指代相同的人称代词:

    我们昨晚看的电影很精彩。

    误:The film we saw it last night was wonderful.

    正:The film we saw last night was wonderful.

    刚才同你讲话的那个人是谁?

    误:Who's the man you just talked to him?

    正:Who's the man you just talked to?

    你昨天借给我的书很有趣。

    误:The book you lent it me yesterday was very interesting.

    正:The book you lent me yesterday was very interesting.

    他就是去年死了妻子的那个人。

    误:He is the man whose his wife died last year.

    正:He is the man whose wife died last year.

    156.要分清是定语从句还是其它从句

    例   —Is this room ____ he lived in last year?

    —Is this the room ____ he lived in last year?

    A.that,that         B.the one,the one

    C.that,the one      D.the one,that

    此题应选D。容易误选A。为了便于分析,我们先将以上两句还原成陈述句(注意is 的位置):

    1)This room is ____ he lived in last year.

    2)This is the room ____ he lived in last year.

    第1)句填the one,用作表语,其后的(that)he lived in last year 是用以修饰the one 的定语从句。此句若直接填that,则不是定语从句(因为没有先行词),而是表语从句。但是由于引导表语从句的that不能充当句子成分,而其后的介词in 又缺宾语,所以导致错误。

    第2)句填that,它是关系代词,用以引导定语从句(he lived in last year)修饰the room。

    请做以下试题:

    1.—Is this the book ____ you want to buy?

    —Is this book ____ you want to buy?

    A.that,that           B.the one,the one

    C.that,the one        D.the one,that

    2.—Is this room ____ he lived in 5 years ago?

    —Is this the roon ____ he lived in 5 years ago?

    A. that,that         B.the one,the one

    C.that,the one       D.the one,that

    答案:1.C 2.D

    157.完全倒装

    例    a.Look,here ____ .

    b.Look,here ____ .

    A.he comes,the bus comes

    B.comes he,comes the bus

    C.comes he,the bus comes

    D.he comes,comes the bus

    此题应选D。容易误选A,B。这里涉及倒装问题。倒装通常可分为完全倒装(谓语置于主语前)和部分倒装(使用一般疑问句的形式)。而完全倒装通常又有两种情况:

    1.在描述动作的句子,为了描述生动,增强修饰效果,常将副词out,in,down,up,away,off,here,there,now,then,next 等位于句首,从而引起倒装:

    In came the teacher.老师进来了。

    Up went the arrow into the air.箭飕地一声飞到了空中。

    2.为了使句子平衡或上下文联系紧密,常将状语置于句首,从而引起倒装:

    By the window sat a girl.窗子边坐着一个女孩。

    At the top of the hill stands a weather station.

    山顶上有一个气象站。

    注意:若主语是代词,则不能倒装:

    There he goes.他走了。

    Behind the counter she stood.她站在柜台后。

    158.“only +状语”置于句首句子要倒装

    例    Only in this way ____ able to finish the work in time.

    A.can you be             B.are you

    C.you can be              D.you are

    此题应选B。容易误选D。至于A,C,这比较容易排除,因为情态动词can 不能与be able to 用在同一谓语中。本题之所以要选B 而不选D,主要是因为句首用了only in this way 的缘故,按照英语语法规则:

    “only +状语”位于句首,句子通常要用倒装语序(部分倒装——用一般疑问句形式):

    1.“only +副词”位于句首:

    Only then did I realize that I was wrong.

    只是到了那时我才意识到是我错了。

    2.“only +介词短语”位于句首:

    Only by working hard can you succeed.

    只有努力工作你才能成功。

    Only in the reading-room can you find him.你只有在阅览室才能找到他。

    3.“only +状语从句”位于句首:

    Only when one loses freedom does one know its value.

    一个人只有在失去自由后才知道自由的可贵。

    注意:若位于句首的不是only +状语,而是only +宾语等,则通常无需倒装(但有时也可以倒装):

    Only a policeman the children saw in the street.

    孩子们在街上只看到一个警察。

    Only one more point will I make.我只再说明一点。

    159. 否定词置于句首句子要倒装

    例   a.I ____ seen such a good harvest.

    b. ____ I seen such a good harvest.

    A.have never,Never have

    B.never have,Have never

    C.have never,Have never

    D.never have, Never have

    此题应选A。这里考察的是否定词置于句首,句子用部分倒装的问题。

    一般说来,以下否定词位于句首,句子要用倒装(部分倒装——用一般问句的形式):seldom,never,little,few,hard- ly,not,not until,in vain,in no way,by no means,on no ac- count,no longer 等:

    Never does he come late.他从不迟到。

    Little did he know that the police were after him.

    他一点也不知道警察在找他。

    By no means shall I go there again.

    我决不会再去那儿了。

    Hardly had he arrived at the station when the train began to leave.

    他一到车站,火车就开动了。

    Few students did they see in the classroom.

    他们在教室没看到几个学生。

    Not a word did I ever say to him.

    我从未对他说过一句话。

    Not until all the fish in the river died did the villagersrealize how serious the poliution was.

    直到河里的鱼全死了,村民们才意识到污染是多么严重。

    160.So do I 与So I do

    例   —He studies very hard.

    —Yes,so ____ and so ____ .

    A.he did, you did       B.did he,did you

    C.he did,did you        D.did he, you did

    此题应选C。容易误选B。此题句意为:

    —他学习很用功。

    —是的,他确实用功,你也一样(用功)。

    这里涉及这样两个问题:

    1.表示前面所述的情况也适合于后面一个人或事物,通常在so 后用倒装句式(部分倒装——用一般问句的形式):

    He likes English.So do I.他喜欢英语,我也一样。

    He was ill and so were his parents.

    他病了,他父母也病了。

    顺便说一句,在正式文体中,as 也可这样用:

    He travelled a great deal,as did most of his friends.

    他去过许多地方旅游,他多数朋友也一样。

    但是如果前面所述情况为否定式,则用neither,nor 引出倒装句(此时不能用so):

    He couldn't do it,and neither could she.

    他做不了,她也做不了。

    He never comes late.Nor do I.

    他从不迟到,我也从不迟到。

    2.后一句子若只是重复前句的意思,起加强语气的作用,so 后面不用倒装句式:

    —He has done a good job.他干得不错。

    —So he has.他的确干得不错。

    161.not only…but(also)连接句子时的倒装

    例      Not only ____ a great writer,but ____ a great fighter.

    A.he is,he is        B.is he,is he

    C.is he,he is        D.he is,is he

    此题应选C。即not only…but(also)位于句首连接两个句子时,通常前面一句(not only)要倒装,而后面一句(but)则不倒装(即所谓的“前倒后不倒”)。又如:

    Not only did he complain about the food,but he also refused to pay for it.

    他不仅抱怨饭不好,而且还拒绝付钱。

    Not only did we lose all our money,but we also came close to losing our lives.

    我们不仅丢了所有的钱,而且差点丧了命。

    比较以下两结构:

    1.not until 放在句首时,要用not until +状语(从句) +倒装的主句(即所谓的“后倒前不倒”——注意联系英语中的“否定词位于句首要倒装”):

    Not until the teacher came did we leave.直到老师来了我们才离开。

    Not until the war was over did he return home.

    直到战争结束他才返回家乡。

    2.so +adj/adv +(that)?放在句首,通常要倒装前面的主句,而后面的从句不倒装(即所谓的“前倒后不倒”):

    So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed.

    光传播得这样快,以致于我们无法想象它的速度。

    162.涉及主语一致的倒装

    例      In the letter ____ these words,“I love you”.

    A.was    B.were    C.saw    D.found

    此题应选B。选项A,C,D 都有可能被误选。

    对于此题,考生首先要弄清它是一个倒装句,其正常词序为:

    These words“I love you”were in the letter.

    为了结构紧凑和平衡,才使用此倒装句式。又如:

    轮船上有2000 余人。

    正:On the ship were more than 2000 people.

    正:More than 2000 people were on the ship.

    值得注意的是,以上这类倒装句,还涉及主谓一致问题:

    墙后是一些高树。

    正:Behind the wall are some tall trees.

    误:Behind the wall is some tall trees.

    老师四周围着一些年轻的学生。

    正:Around the teacher were some young students.

    误:Around the teacher was some young students.

    这两座山之间有一个小村庄。

    正:Between the two hills was a small village.

    误:Between the two hills were a small village.

    这类句子,有的考生之所出错,是因为他们把句首的介词短语看作主语,从而把谓语与介词短语中的名词保持一致。关于这个问题,有个比较简单的方法可以判定:即在英语中介词短语通常不能作主语,假若一个句子的主语位置是一个介词短语,考生应考虑是否是一个倒装句。
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